Background to the Study
Adult education refers to the provision of instructed learning
events for adults after earlier terminated or interrupted education within the
regular education system. It is characteristic that adult education is arranged
and organized specifically with adults in mind (Fulah, 2003). The differences
to education within the regular education system can be such as the time and
modes of instruction. Adult education is defined on the basis of the
organization providing education and training to adults (Jenny, 2001).
education is instructional and related support services for adults who are not
enrolled in the school. It is for adults who lack the educational foundation
expected of a high school graduate. It is a form of education for adults whose
inability to speak, read, and write the English Language, compute and solve
problems constitutes a substantial impairment in their ability to obtain,
retain and/or function on the job, in their family and in society commensurate
with their real ability, to achieve their goals, and develop their knowledge and
potential. This category of people is in need of a programme that helps them
eliminate such inability and raise their level of education and
self-sufficiency (Aback, 2000). Adults are taught in adult education classes by
professionals known as adult educators. An adult educator is one who
practices the profession of facilitating the learning of adults by applying the
principles of androgogy. An adult education student is a student who studies
adult education as a course in any institution in a bid to become a qualified
adult educator after graduation. An adult education student is supposed to pass
through some training to enable him/her qualify for the career.
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and
competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and
knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (Frank, 2009). Training
has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, and performance. It
forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at
institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In
addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession,
observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue
training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills
throughout working life (Sidney, 2002). People within many professions and
occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
Freire ( 2005), believed that education and training should not
be a ‘banking‘ process, where students are filled with lecturer-determined
content, and are then asked to reproduce it. He argued that students at
whatever stage of learning are capable of conscientization, of
reading the world and breaking the culture of silence in order to create their
own instructional agenda. The training methods utilized in the traditional
setting for the training of adult education students include lecturing and
questioning techniques. The lecturer presents and explains the topic to the
adult education students and asks questions to check for understanding or not.
Lecturing is a well known teaching method used in education. In
this teaching method the lecturer plays a more active role than learners. The
lecturer prepares the lesson before entering the class by collecting teaching
materials and developing a good teaching/learning plan. This method helps the
learners to focus on the specific subjects delivered by the lecturer. It can be
useful for a class wanting only to learn to read and write. However, it limits
learner participation since it gives more chance to the lecturer to dominate.
lecturer is someone who dispenses knowledge, someone who lectures, tells,
feeds, disseminates, covers material, and teaches the subject matter more than
the students. The students sit passively while the lecturer is going on. Desks
in rows and a blackboard and podium up front are forms of arrangements designed
for this type of teaching method. However, Huntington (1997) suggests that
lectures are an effective method for giving short sets of instructions,
background information, guidelines, or other information that is needed in a
short time frame.
integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs), training
methodologies in tertiary Adult Education is a new teaching methods, which has
added a new dimension to teaching and learning in Adult Education. Integration
is the act or process of integrating; the state of becoming integrated; the
bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and
equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation (Alako,
2006). Integration can be said to be a way of applying/introducing a particular
concept or method to improve a system or an organizational activity, be it a
company, industry, educational institutions e.t.c. Such a concept or method
could be necessary to the aim of such an organization to better their previous
activities or mode of operations in a bid to obtain a better result or output.
Hence, there is need to integrate Information and Communication Technologies
(ICTs) in training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are defined as
a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to
create, disseminate, store, and manage information” (Brandford, 2008). ICT
implies the technology which consists of electronic devices and associated
human interactive materials that enable the user to employ them for a wide
range of teaching – learning processes in addition to personal use (Clarlson,
1999). These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting
technologies (radio and television), and telephone. ICT is that technology
which uses the information to meet human need or purposes including processing
and exchanging. Information and communications technology (ICT) in education is
the processing of information and its communications facilities and features
that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in
education (Dowling, 2003). Anzalone (2001) opined that some ICT facilities like
PowerPoint presentation packages, Data projector, Internet services can boost
the academic achievement of students if applied in teaching and learning.
When these technologies are applied in the field of education,
it is termed as ICT in education. The term too can be used to connotate the term
Educational technology, because it also uses any hardware and software
approaches that can enhance better learning outcomes (Eric, 2004). In the era
of Computer technology, ICT mainly focuses on the infrastructure, devices and
sources of computer technology and thus it is imperative to discuss about the
use of ICT in education by focusing mainly on Computer based technology.
ICT in education is any educational technology that is applied
in the educational process. It encompasses Hardware approach like use of
machines and materials, Software approach like use of methodologies and
strategies of teaching learning and Systems approach that uses the management
technology that deals with the systematic organization of the hardware and the
software (Johnson, 2006). It also include different software packages for use
in different departments of education; e.g library software, administration
software, software related to managing the entire teaching learning process.
Ogan (2006) stated that an appropriate use of PowerPoint can enhance the
teaching and learning experience for both staff and students.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) — which
include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as
computers and the Internet — have been proven as potentially powerful tools for
educational change and reform (Jack, 2006). When used appropriately, different
ICTs can help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education
to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by helping
make teaching and learning into an active process connected to real life. ICT
materials should be readily available for integration into the training of
adult education students. Eric (2004) suggested that ICT should be properly
integrated to enable adult education students to source information at ease.
Freire ( 2005) is of the view that It is important that lecturers and students
acquired the needed skills for integration of ICT in the training of adult
There are also some challenges that seem to hinder the
integration of ICT in the training of adult education students in the tertiary
institutions. The identification of these challenges is necessary because it
gives a clue to the factors that limit the integration of ICT into the training
of adult education students. This further helps adult educators to source and
provide solutions to such challenges for better integration of ICTs.
University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) is the only tertiary
institution in Enugu State that offers adult education programme. However, the
training of adult education students in UNN seems not to be based on ICT
application; rather, the conventional or traditional method of education and
training has been in vogue (Ugwuegbu, 2003). Adult education students in UNN
were however trained using the conventional method or the traditional method of
training before the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
The training of adult education students in UNN seems not to be effective. This
is so because according to Oyedeji (2008), “adult education students who should
be trained in all round knowledge and skills for the society, are found to be
trained in the conventional ways other professionals are trained” (P. 24).
Furthermore, UNN seem to lack the necessary ICT equipment needed for the
training of adult education students.
The most required ICT facility for training individuals for
competence in the modern global labour market is the computer. The computer is
a device which takes in information, stores the information, and gives out such
information when needed with maximum accuracy. Computer devices systematically
present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use
reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. With computers,
students can learn at their own pace, because the student interacts with the
computer. It is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device.
Furthermore, educational alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student’s
capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. In the use of
computer device for training adult education students, it has been noted by
Ogan (2006), that as instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and
improving performance of adult education students.
with the advent of ICT, many lecturers are advocating for the integration of
ICT, especially computer in the training of individuals for human capital
development, and as well as professional development for the Nigerian labour
market. This is because ICT provides learning opportunities that is
characterized by regular interaction of lecturer and learner irrespective of
time or place, or both time and place; learning that is certified in some way
by an institution or agency; the use of a variety of media, including print and
electronic; two-way communications that allow learners and tutors to interact;
the possibility of needed face-to-face meetings; and a specialized division of
labour in the production and delivery of courses (Eric, 2004). Most instructors
or lecturers, who are knowledgeable, capable, and skilled, can make use of ICT
facilities in facilitating the training of adult education students.
It is against this backdrop of opinions on the potentials of
integrating ICTs into training and the inability of the lecturer method to
train effective adult education students that the researcher dimmed it fit to
practically investigate the extent of integration of Information and
Communication Technologies in training adult education students in tertiary
institutions in Enugu state.
Statement of the Problem
obvious from the background that the lecture method of training has been
popularly used in the training of adult education students in UNN. This
situation may have led to the poor training of adult education students and as
such, most of the trained adult education students in UNN may not fit in
properly into the labour market which is now driven by information and
communication technology (ICT). It has also eroded the individualization of
learning and has made adult trainees passive listeners rather than active ones.
There seems to be unavailability of ICT materials for training of adult
education students in UNN. It seems that ICT is not integrated to a great
extent in training of adult education students, and in the sourcing of
information by adult education students in UNN. It seems that adult education
students do not have the needed skills for integration of ICT into their
training process. It seems there are some challenges hindering the integration
of ICT into the training of adult education students in UNN.
ICT have been found very relevant in the training of adult education students
who will fit into the present world of work. This is because of its obvious
advantages in the training processes. These include: learning opportunities
that is characterized by the regular interaction of lecturer and adult
education students irrespective of time or place, or both time and place; the
use of a variety of media, including print and electronic; two-way
communications that allow adult education students and lecturers to interact,
and a specialized division of labour in the production and delivery of courses.
these obvious limitations of the popularly used lecture method and the current
advantages of integrating ICT into training process, there is the need to
examine the extent to which ICT is being integrated into the training of adult
education students so as to tap these obvious advantages. Therefore, the
problem of this study is to examine the extent of integration of information
and communication technologies in training of adult education students in UNN,
which is the only tertiary institution that offers adult education programme in
Purpose of the Study
purpose of this study is to assess the extent of Information and Communications
Technologies integration in training adult education students in tertiary
institutions in Enugu state. Specifically, the study will seek to:
ascertain the types of available ICT materials for the training
of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State.
determine the extent of ICT integration into the training of
adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State.
examine the extent of integration of ICT in the sourcing of
information by adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu
examine the needed skills required by tertiary adult education
students for integration of ICT into their training process.
find out the challenges hindering the integration of ICT into
the training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu
Significance of the Study
findings of this study will be significant to adult education lecturers and
instructors because it will enhance their mode of teaching and help them adopt
a better teaching method that will enable them reach their students at any time
irrespective of their location with the aid of ICT.
result of this study will be significant to students because it will help them
to have basic information, technical data and material for research on ICT
integration. This will help them carryout any form of research work
relevant to the integration of ICT to training without any hitch or paucity of
result of this study will be significant to adult educators, since undoubtedly,
ICT are potentially useful tools both for managing education and for training.
This is because the research will create awareness to the adult educators on
the extent to which they integrate ICT in their training of adult education
result of this study will be significant to educational administrators because
integration of ICT can allow educators to reach new groups of potential
students, particularly mature students, lifelong learners, students with
physical disabilities, students in employment and students who are far from
education centres. The findings of the study will therefore help the
educational administrators to make good policies that will encourage better
integration of ICT into the training of their students.
Policy makers will benefit from the findings of the study in
many ways. It will acquaint the policy makers on the deficiencies of lecture
method of training which necessitates the need for ICT. This will enable them
make policy statements that will encourage the integration of ICT in training
of students in various tertiary institutions in Enugu State.
The findings of this study will be of colossal benefit to the
government of Enugu State. This study will serve as an eye-opener to the state
government on the extent to which ICT is integrated into the training of their
students despite its obvious potentials. This disclosure will prompt the state
government to adopt and implement the use of ICT in training adult educators in
her various tertiary institutions.
the theoretical foundation of this study is hinged on the Learning theories.
Learning theories are theoretical frameworks that describe how information is
absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. The theory states that
cognitive, emotional, and technological influences, as well as prior
experience, all play a part in how training or understanding, is acquired or
changed, and knowledge and skills retained. The concepts of this theory will
serve as an insight to the present study in the sense that it will yield a
perspective for the integration of information and communication technologies
in training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu
following research questions will guide the study.
What are the types of available ICT materials for the training
of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State?
What is the extent of ICT integration into the training of adult
education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State?
To what extent is ICT integrated into the sourcing of
information by adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu
What are the needed skills required by tertiary adult education
students for integration of ICT into their training process?
What are the types of challenges hindering the integration of
ICT into the training of adult education students in tertiary institutions in
Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the integration of ICT in the training adult education
students in tertiary institutions in Enugu State. The study will be targeted at
second, third, and fourth year adult education students in University of
Nigeria, Nsukka. However, the study is restricted to availability of ICT
materials, extent of ICT integration into training, integration of ICT in
sourcing of information, the skills required by adult education students, and
problems of ICT in training adult education students in tertiary institutions
in Enugu State.
The following null hypotheses formulated to guide the study will
be tested at 0.05 level of significance:
HO1 There is no significant difference in
the mean rating of adult education students on the extent of integration of ICT
into teaching of adult education students in tertiary institutions in Enugu
HO2 There is no significant difference in
the mean rating of adult education students on the challenges hindering the
integration of ICT in the training of adult education students in tertiary
institutions in Enugu State.