Given the tremendous global development in information
communication technology, the use of computers in education is becoming
indispensable. Nigeria cannot afford to be left behind in this development.
Computer Concept Mapping (CCM) is a way of employing computers in education to
aid learning. CCM is a visual representation of knowledge by showing the relationship(s)
between concepts and ideas using computer software. It is a student-centred
learning approach that employs computer software in knowledge construction
which can help foster students’ academic achievement. The purpose of this
study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of CCM on students’ academic
achievement in Economics. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the
study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The sample
consisted of 198 SS2 Economics students in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu state.
Economics Achievement Test (EAT) was used for data collection. A reliability
index of 0.81 was obtained using Kuder-Richardson K-R20 which guaranteed the
use of the instrument for the study. The data collected were analyzed using
mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions while ANCOVA
was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results
showed that CCM improved students’ academic achievement in Economics. The
findings also showed that CCM is gender insensitive on students’ achievement in
Economics. It is recommended among others that teachers should incorporate CCM
in their teaching to help enhance students’ achievement in Economics and that
government, communities, corporate agencies and other well meaning individuals
should help provide an enabling learning environment that supports and promotes
CCM. The study concluded that if CCM would be used in the teaching and learning
of Economics in secondary schools, students’ achievement would be enhanced for
Background of the Study
Economics has been defined by different people in different
ways. Economics is the study of ways of making choices and allocating scarce
resources to satisfy human wants. It is the study of how people and societies
make decisions; allocate and manage scarce resources to achieve their needs. In
this view, Hall, (2013) defined Economics as the study of how individuals,
firms and whole societies identify their most important needs, allocate and
manage scarce resources in such a way that satisfies as many needs as possible.
Since resources are scarce while human wants are insatiable, Economics deals
with the study of how people utilize scarce resources in face of unlimited
Economics is the study of human attitudes towards satisfying
their needs. Economics is concerned with human behaviour such as how people
earn their living and make choices between alternatives to satisfy their wants;
it focuses on the study of firms and the government whose activities are geared
towards the production of goods and services for the satisfaction of human want
(Yusuf, 2012). Economics could then be seen as the study of human activities
dealing with allocation of resources and production of goods and services for
the satisfaction of human wants. It is a social science that studies how
individuals, firms and governments make decisions and choices in face of
unlimited wants and allocate scarce resources to their most important, pressing
and preferred needs.
In Nigeria, Economics is taught in senior secondary school using
Economics senior secondary school curriculum. Economics curriculum has to do
with all the experiences and activities provided by the teacher/school to the
students in course of handling Economics subject in order to achieve the
objectives of the subject (Economics). As documented by the Federal Ministry of
Education (FME), (2008) the guiding principle of the Economics curriculum is
the need to equip graduates of senior secondary school with the basic knowledge
and skills that will enable them to better appreciate the nature of economic
problems in any society and adequately prepare them for the challenges in the
The objectives of Economics curriculum according to FME, (2008)
include enabling students:
Understand basic economic principles and concepts as well as the
tools for sound economic analysis.
Contribute intelligently to discourse on economic reforms and
development as they affect or would affect the generality of Nigerians.
Understand the structure and functioning of economic
Appreciate the role of public policies on national economy.
Develop the skills and also appreciate the basis for rational
Become sensitized to participate actively in national economic
advancement through entrepreneurship, capital market and so on.
Understand the role and status of Nigeria and other African
countries in international economic relationships.
Appreciate the problems encountered by developing countries in
their effort towards economic advancement.
Economics is of great importance because it is a subject that
has direct utility which prepares a student for a wide range of career options,
ranging from business to government such as in industries and other
professional areas like Banking, Accountancy, and Planning (Hall, 2013).
Therefore, the need for economic literacy is obvious because it is a subject
that has relevance to everyday life and could prepare secondary school students
for an entrepreneurial career. It helps in equipping secondary school students
with entrepreneurial skills to becoming useful citizens even if they do not
further their education. According to Finkelstein (2011), high school graduates
will be making economic choices all their lives, as breadwinners and consumers,
and as citizens and voters and they will need some capacity for critical
judgment, whether or not they go to college. Thus, it is of great importance
that secondary school Economics curriculum is very interesting, enlightening,
revealing and addresses important economic issues in the country for students
to gain meaningfully from the experiences, knowledge and skills for real life
activities. Whether students have gained meaningfully or not from the
experiences, knowledge and skills provided through Economics curriculum can
only be determined through the academic achievement of students in the subject
Students’ academic achievement shows the success or otherwise of
an academic/educational endeavour. Students’ academic achievement tends
to show the efficacy or otherwise of schools and tends to determine the future
of students. Aremu (2001), was of the view that academic achievement is a
fundamental criterion by which all teaching-learning activities are measured,
using some standards of excellence and the acquisition of particular grades in
examinations to measure student’s ability, mastery of the content, and skills
in applying the knowledge acquired to a particular situation. According to
Ernest-Ehibudu & Opurum (2013), the measure for assessing students’ level
of academic achievement is through achievement tests/examinations and
Achievement tests may include tests or examinations given at the
end of a lesson, unit, term, session, year or programme such as weekly test,
mid-term test, termly examination, first school leaving examination, senior
secondary school examination (e.g WASSCE, NECO, NABTEB) and other
tests/examinations at different levels and areas of education. For instance,
the achievement test to be used in this study is Economics Achievement Test as
developed by the researcher. The results/grades gotten from these achievement
tests/examinations and observations could be high, average, low or poor.
In spite of the importance of Economics and the government’s
provision in terms of instructional materials and qualified teachers (Federal
Ministry of Education, FME, 2008), students’ achievement in Economics seems not
to be encouraging. For example, the West African Examination Council Chief
Examiner’s Report (2008 through 2012) revealed that the achievement of students
in Economics at the end of secondary education has remained poor. Ojelabi,
(2009) observed that researchers’ concern has risen due to the fact that
students’ achievements in the Secondary School Certificate Economics have
remained poor. Regrettably, Alaka and Obadara (2013) noted that there has been
persistent poor achievement of students in West African Senior Secondary Certificate
Examinations (WASSCE). This poor achievement of students in Economics, a
subject that aids in developing students’ critical and creative thinking is
very disheartening. No wonder the seeming dysfunctional, non-creativity,
non-productivity and non-employability of secondary school graduates in the
country. Various factors have been adduced for this poor achievement of
students in Economics such as teaching methods and gender among others (Adu
& Ayeni, 2004; Ewumi, 2009; Olatoye & Adekoye, 2010; Emaikwu, 2012;
Idris & Rajuddin, 2012; Ifeanyi-Uche & Ejabukwa, 2013; Jensen &
Teaching methods/approaches can make or mar students’
potentialities to learn and achieve. Teaching approaches and strategies have
been put forward as one of the factors affecting students’ academic
achievement. For example, Emaikwu, (2012) noted that the fall in standard of
performance at secondary school level is incontrovertibly attributable to
pedagogical approaches adopted by teachers in schools. The selection of appropriate
teaching approaches for a particular classroom situation enables the teacher
and his/her students to accomplish specific goals (Kennedy, 2011). As such,
Finkelstein (2011) stated that student’s achievement outcomes are of primary
importance and are hypothesized to be mediated by changes in teacher’s
knowledge and application of pedagogical practices in teaching-learning
process. Observing the importance of teaching methods in teaching-learning
process, Hussain and Ali, (2012) postulated that the content to teach is just
like the body and the method is just like the soul in the body; the body
without soul is of no importance, therefore teaching without the proper method
of teaching has zero value. This implies that ineffective or
non-students-participatory teaching methods result to little or no learning and
the end product – poor or no achievement.
Researchers have called for students to become more active
participants in their learning process and for instructors to apply teaching
methods that increase students’ participation and their interactions with
students (Lammers & Murphy 2002; Kember 2009). Identifying teaching methods
that may be effective in different educational levels, Hussain and Ali, (2012)
noted that in the lower levels the drill and practice method may be effective
and fruitful while at the higher stages the method should be according to the
demands of the subject and the interest of the students.
There is no particular teaching-learning approach that is
exclusively encompassing or the most excellent. Two or more teaching-learning
approaches could be used by teachers to have more meaningful learning outcomes.
However, Idris and Rajuddin (2012) observed that it is a common practice in
Nigeria where a teacher stands before the chalk board and delivers lesson
through verbal instruction while the students serve as passive listeners and
take note from the board. However, Kelly (2014) stated that this practice can
be of great benefit in that students who are auditory learners find that
lectures appeal to their learning style. Also, in a lecture environment,
instructors have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom
because they are the sole source of information (Kelly, 2014).
However, lecture method seems to promote rote learning since
students are simply passive listeners in the process. Accordingly, Olatoye and
Adekoya (2010) noted that some methods of conveying knowledge like conventional
approaches such as lecture and recitation tend to be relatively ineffective on
the students’ ability to master and retain important concepts, and on enhancing
critical thinking and collaborative problem solving among students. No wonder,
the poor achievement of secondary schools students and the seeming failure of
secondary education towards producing sound, creative, functional and effective
secondary school graduates.
For students’ achievement to increase and for them to be
productive and functional in this 21st century, there is every need for the
application students’ participatory approaches; that is teaching – learning
approaches that meaningfully engage the learners such as concept mapping.
Concept mapping is a tool that allows a learner to learn and understand the
relationships between ideas or concepts by creating a visual chart/diagram of
the connections. Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novak’s
research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in
children’s knowledge of science (Hsu & Chang, 2011). It is a technique that
gives learners the opportunity to externalize their thoughts in a
visual/graphic form. De Simone, Schmid and McEwen (2001) opined that concept
mapping allows the learner to abstract important information, relate ideas, and
represent them in a structured manner with the result being a concept map where
concepts are enclosed in nodes and attached by links. Johnston (2013) observed
that concept map is a powerful learning strategy that is graphic in nature and
makes the learner to think about the relationships between terms andthat latter
aspect makes concept mapping especially suited to thestudy of Economics.
By drawing a concept map of a lesson or a chapter in a textbook,
a learner can identify the key concepts and show the relationships between
them.Thishelps him/her to understand more clearly the meaning of the
material.Inspiration (2013) noted that concept mapping as a teaching-learning
technique visually illustrates the relationships between concepts and ideas.
Concept maps allow learners to: find out the connections between ideas they
already have; connect new ideas to knowledge that they already have which helps
to organize knowledge or ideas; and organize ideas in a logical but not rigid
structure that allows future information or viewpoints to be included which can
help them absorb and adapt to new information and ideas (Johnston, 2013).
Concept mapping could be done manually using pen and paper (i.e.
Manual Concept Mapping) or by the use of computer (i.e. Computer Concept
Mapping). Manual Concept Mapping (MCM) is constructing concept maps with pen
and paper. It is generating concept maps manually without any computer
application or software. Correcting and modifying pen and paper concept maps
could be very frustrating. The generation of linking features in concept mapping
produces complex and intricate arrays that require constant evaluation and
revision and use of pen and paper to construct concept maps can inhibit this
generation (Riley & Ahlberg, 2004). With the processes involved in
constructing concepts maps, students are bound to alter, erase, revise, change,
add or modify their maps to accommodate new knowledge or organize information
properly. This process of map modification may prove difficult, messy and
cumbersome. The implication of this, is that learners may need more support in
creating concept maps, building relationships among concepts, and encouragement
to modify and revise their maps. Thus the need for Computer Concept Mapping
Computer Concept Mapping (CCM) is a technique for organizing and
representing knowledge by visualizing relationships among concepts in a
computer environment or using computer software or tools. Hsu and Chang (2011)
defined computer concept mapping as a graphical, visual and spatial creative
tool that helps guide designers to their own problem-solving paths. These
computer tools or software include CMAP®, Inspiration®,
Smart Draw® and Concept Map EDitor® among
others. CMAP software will be used in course of this work. Computer concept
mapping allows easy change, revision, modification and corrections without
going through the hurdles of erasing, cancelling or outright condemnation of
the already mapped work. Buttressing this point, Chang, Sung, Chang, and Lin,
(2005) noted that constructing concept maps using pen and paper has some
obvious disadvantages as they are difficult to revise or alter. CCM is a meta –
cognitive approach that seems to foster students’ achievement. It is a
teaching-learning approach that promote meaningful learning (Douma, Ligierko
& Romano, 2009) and also helps develop students’ thinking skills (Ajaja,
The world is fast changing due to improved information
technology and system. To fit and function effectively in this fast changing
globe, a country needs to be scientifically and technologically advanced and
keep abreast with the laudable developments across the globe. Nigeria cannot
afford to be on the wrong side of the digital divide. Using CCM accords Nigeria
this great opportunity to keep abreast with global trend in technology. In this
21st century, a remarkable change is sweeping through the
school system. Accordingly, Blair (2012) posited that 21st century
learners at all levels are capable of using all kind of technological gadgets
and are highly relational and demand quick access to new knowledge and are
capable of engaging in learning at a whole new level. Thus, as noted by Blair,
with the world literally at their fingertips, today’s students need teachers
and administrators to re-envision the role of technology in the classroom.
Employing CCM in the classroom tends to be one of the ways to acknowledge the
role of technology and its integration in classroom. With today’s technology,
world of too-much-to-know and too-many sources- of-knowledge outside the
classroom that can easily be brought to bear within school walls by students
themselves, teaching has gone beyond simply dispensing knowledge (Muraina,
Adeleke & Rahman, 2011). Using CCM in the classroom is one of the ways
teachers can actually go beyond simple knowledge dispensation.
Various researches in some subject areas have been conducted to
ascertain the efficacy of computer concept-mapping as a teaching-learning
approach. For instance, Chang, Sung and Chen (2001) investigated the
effectiveness of computer based ‘construct-by-self’, computer based
‘construct-on-scaffold’, and ‘construct by paper-and pencil’ concept mapping on
students’ achievement in Biology (Reproduction). The findings indicated that
both of the two computer-based groups achieved more complete and accurate maps
than the group using paper and pencil. Sturm & Rankin-Erickson (2002)
investigated the Effects of hand drawn and computer generated concept mapping
on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities.
The researchers found that students’ descriptive essay produced in the hand and
computer mapping conditions demonstrated significant increase above base line
writing samples on number of words and wholistic writing scores. Lin,
Strickland, Ray, and Denner, (2004) worked on ‘computer-based concept mapping
as a pre-writing strategy for middle school students’ and discovered that
computer-based concept mapping enhanced idea generation and the total quality
of the students’ pre-writing concept maps in preparation for a persuasive
writing task. However, they also found out that students who generated
paper-and-pencil concept maps scored better in persuasive writing than the
students who generated computer-based concept maps. Riley and Ahlberg, (2004)
investigated the use of ICT-based concept mapping techniques on creativity in
literacy tasks and found that the technique enhanced writing achievement.
Nekang and Agwagah (2010) studied the effect of concept mapping on students’
achievement in Mathematics (Probability), the researchers found that concept mapping
enhanced students’ achievement in Probability.
Hsu & Chang (2011) worked on the relationship between
computer-based concept mapping and creative performance. The researchers found
that students’ computer-based concept mapping performance is directly related
to their video production performance. They also found that students’
computer-based concept mapping performance can effectively predict their
creative performance. Bala (2011) studied the effect of concept-mapping
instructional strategy on Nigeria Certificate in Education students’
performance in Mathematics (Trigonometry). Findings from the study revealed
that the experimental group exposed to concept-mapping instructional strategy
significantly performed better in trigonometry than the control group that were
exposed to the lecture method. Arruarte, Elorriaga, Calvo, Larranaga and Rueda
(2012) carried out research on computer-based concept maps using Concept Map
EDitor for enabling multilingual education in computer science. The researchers
found the results of the study to be positive in learning outcome. The findings
of their study showed that computer concept mapping using Concept Map EDitor is
a good support for education in multilingual settings.
Findings from these studies proved the efficacy of computer
concept-mapping in enhancing students’ achievement in different areas. However,
most works on computer concept mapping are foreign, (not done in Nigeria). The
ones carried out in Nigeria are mainly manual concept mapping done mainly in
sciences and other school subjects but not in Economics. There is a large void
in available research on effect of computer concept mapping (CCM) on students’
achievement in Economics in Nigeria. This study seeks to help fill this void by
investigating the effect of CCM on secondary school students’ achievement in
Another factor that could influence students’ achievement in
Economics is gender. Gender involves the biological, psychological, social and
cultural properties of being a male or female (i.e. boy or girl). Accordingly,
Ewumi (2009) noted that gender involves the psychological and socio-cultural
dimensions of being male or female. Gender is one of the personal variables
that have been related to differences found in academic achievement (Ewumi, 2009).
The issue on gender and academic achievement appears to centre generally on the
extent to which females and males perform differently in different subjects.
Emerson and Taylor, (2004) observed that gender can affect the likelihood of
achievement in Economics.
Findings on gender based researches have shown varying results.
For instance, Emerson and Taylor (2004) in their study on comparing student’s
achievement across experimental and lecture-oriented sections of principles of
microeconomics course found that male students have a significant achievement
advantage over females in the traditional section while their female
counterparts outperformed them in the experimental section. Alaka and Obadara
(2013) in their study on Scholastic Performance of Students at West African
Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations in Nigeria found that the overall
achievement of female students was better than their male counterpart in WASSCE
from 2001-2005. Still in favour of females, Nasri and Ahmed (2006) found that female
students outperform their counterparts in College of Business and Economics at
United Arab Emirates University. Falch and Naper (2004) noted that the observed
gender gap in student achievement in favor of girls is often explained by
increased share of female teachers.
However, some scholars have opposing views as it relates to
gender achievement in Economics. McCarty, Padgham, and Bennett (2006) observed
gender difference in students’ achievement in principles of Economics in favour
of males and noted that the difference could be explained by higher number of
male professors in economics than female professors. Ballard and Johnson (2006)
observed that women have low expectations about their ability to succeed in
principles of economics courses, with a major factor being women’s relatively
low level of competency in mathematics which forms some basic parts of
Economics. Some have suggested that the reason for gender gap in Economics as
noted by Jensen and Owen (2013) is that the mainstream Economics curriculum
excludes topics and methodology of interest to women while others have focused
on a classroom environment that is unfriendly to women. Other reasons for the
gender gap in Economics classes are poorer mathematics preparation of female
students, poorer relative performance in Economics classes, and less overall
interest in the topic due to different career aspirations, (Jensen & Owen,
2013). Even though gender gap remains inconclusive in Economics, it is believed
that males are prone to learning and showing interest in Economics than females
(Jensen & Owen, 2013).
On the issue of concept mapping and gender, Nekang and Agwagah
(2010) found that male students had higher achievement mean scores than their
female counterparts. Ezeudu (2009) worked on the interaction of concept maps
and gender on achievement of students in selected organic Chemistry concepts.
The findings of the study revealed that the achievement of students in organic
Chemistry concepts was influenced by concept maps and gender. Onuoha (2010)
found no gender difference in students’ achievement in Social Studies using
concept mapping instructional strategy. From the foregoing it is obvious that
the issue of gender and achievement have link but without explicit conclusion.
On computer usage and gender, Adebowale, Adediwura and Bada
(2009) found that gender had no significant influence on SS III students’
computer attitudes, their computer self efficacy and computer anxiety.
Similarly, Olatoye, (2009) in a study on gender factor in computer anxiety,
knowledge and utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun State,
Nigeria found no significant difference between male and female students’
computer anxiety. However, the result of the study revealed a significant
difference between male and female students with regards to computer
utilization in favour of males.
Statement of the Problem
Keeping in view the importance of Economics, the achievement of
students in the subject seems not to be encouraging. The achievement of
Economics students in WAEC has been generally poor. Accordingly, the WAEC chief
examiner’s reports over four years described students’ achievement in senior
secondary school Economics as average, low and poor. This poor achievement of
students in Economics, a subject that aids in developing students’ critical and
creative thinking is very disheartening. No wonder the seeming dysfunctional,
non-creativity, non-productivity and non-employability of secondary school
outcomes in the country.
The major cause of students’ poor achievement in Economics has
been attributed to teaching approaches used in teaching the subject. Sources
have revealed that the dominant use of non-participatory pedagogical approaches
leading to rote learning of Economics concepts, theories and their necessary
applications is one of the most important variables that leads to students’
poor achievement in Economics. On the contrary, sources have revealed that
participatory/student-centred pedagogical approaches enhance academic
achievement in different fields. However, because of the fast changing world
due to global improvement in information technology and system, a remarkable
change is sweeping through the school system. That being the case, there is
urgent need to help make Nigeria’s secondary school students have a global
colouration; thus, the need for a pedagogical approach that could help meet
this need. Hence, the need to find out whether Computer Concept Mapping
approach will enhance students’ achievement in Economics.
Furthermore, the issue of influence of gender on students’
achievement in Economics has remained inconclusive. There is need for this
current study in order to provide additional empirical evidence on the
influence of gender on students’ achievement in Economics. Thus, the problem of
this study is to find out the extent to which computer concept mapping can help
in improving students’ achievement in Economics and the influence of gender on
students’ achievement in Economics.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to investigate the effect
of Computer Concept Mapping (CCM) on students’ achievement in Economics in
senior secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State. Specifically,
this study sought to determine:
1) The effect of CCM on students’ achievement in Economics.
2) The influence of gender on students’ achievement in
3) The interaction effect of modes of concept mapping and gender
on students’ achievement in Economics.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical
significance. Theoretically, this study is anchored on Ausubel’s learning
theory and Bruner’s constructivist theory. Ausubel’s theory posits that
learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into
existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. To Ausubel,
learners put new concepts into a larger, more comprehensive category and then
reorganize or classify the new and old information. On the other hand, Bruner
is of the view that knowledge is constructive and learning is achieved by the
active construction of knowledge, meaning, ideas or concepts by learners based
upon their current/past knowledge and social interactions.
Both theories conceived the teacher as a mere coach or
facilitator. The teacher provides adequate learning environment for learners to
meaningfully engage in knowledge construction and application. In a computer
concept mapping environment, students are encouraged as they are actively
involved in constructing their own meaning using ideas and concepts based upon
their past/current knowledge and taking responsibility of their own learning.
In a computer concept mapping environment, it is believed that learners are
enabled to assimilate new concepts and propositions into existing concepts and
propositional frameworks they already held which is the fundamental idea of
these theories for meaningful learning to occur. By incorporating computer
concept mapping into teaching-learning process, teachers will create a
meaningful environment in which these theories will help students become active
learners, leading to better achievements. Thus this study will either lay
further credence to or refute the credibility of Ausubel’s and Bruner’s
Practically,the findings of the study will be of great
importance to teachers, students, curriculum developers and planners and the
society at large. Teachers will benefit from the study as it will enhance their
knowledge on CCM processes. It will enable them adopt these processes in
teaching-learning process which in turn will help in increasing students’
achievement in Economics. This will help them start seeing themselves as
knowledge facilitators and coaches as CCM demands, instead of being
encyclopedia of knowledge.
The findings of this study will help to enhance students’
achievement in Economics as their teachers adopt CCM processes. It will help
and guide students to engage in meaningful learning thereby improving their
achievement. It will enable students take responsibility of their own learning
and become deep thinkers and problem solvers as demanded by CCM processes. The
maps in this study will also serve as guide or reference material to help
students in their study.
To curriculum developers and planners, the findings of the study
will provide information that will enable them decide whether or not to
integrate CCM in Economics curriculum. This will go a long way in improving
students’ achievement in Economics.
To the society at large, this study will be of big benefit as it
will help in producing effective teachers and learners who will engage in
practical and participatory teaching-learning process towards a better academic
achievement for national development.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to the effect of Computer Concept Mapping
on students’ achievement in Economics in Nsukka Education zone, Enugu State.
SS2 Economics students will be the research subjects in this study.
The choice of SS2 students was informed by the fact that the
class was not preparing for any external examination and was more likely to
respond to instructions because of their level of maturity. Also, the topics
treated in the study fell in SS2 Scheme of work.
The content scope of the study was Labour Market, a unit of SS2
Economics syllabus with the following topics: supply and demand for labour,
wage and wage determination, trade union and unemployment. The choice of the
unit was informed based on students’ underachievement in these areas according
to WAEC Chief Examiner’s Report (2009 & 2010).
The following research questions were posed to guide the study:
1. What are the mean achievement scores of students taught with
CCM and those taught with MCM in Economics?
2. What are the mean achievement scores of male and female
students in Economics?
3) What is the interaction effect of modes of concept mapping
and gender on students’ achievement in Economics?
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study
and were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
HO1: There is no
significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught
with CCM and those taught with MCM in Economics.
HO2: There is no
significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female
students in Economics.
HO3: There is no significant
interaction effect of modes of concept mapping and gender on students’
achievement in Economics.