1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Nigeria is a nation fill with vegetation and water bodies; this is usually pronounced in the eastern and the southern part of the country. This is usually good for the people living in such environment interms of agriculture and good weather condition; even with these advantages there are more disadvantages to this gift of nature.
Some of the disadvantages include diseases presented by most of the water bodies especially the stagnent ones. But for the purpose of this study we shall focus on maleria as one of the advantages faced by the inhabitants of this environment.
From the statisitics of world health organisation (WHO); it reads that malaria is mostly found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world and this ugly disease has causes more than three hundred (300) to about five hundred (500) million acute illness. The study went further to state that more than one million death from this population is noticed annually.
The study states that about 30 to 40 percent of the world population is that are living in most of the poorest countries are liable to be infected with maleria parasite. The maleria parasite spread more far more than four times living with most deadly diseases like Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Leprosy, measles, tuberculosis, wooping cough etc combined together today.
It is general noticed that most young mother of under three to five in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria have negleted this issue of maleria parasite and the preventive methods as recommended by the world health organisation (WHO).
Most health organisations have been trying to control the effect of this maleria parasites; the national malaria situation survey relating to the preventive health behaviour in malaria shows that there have been a poor use of mosquito net among parents of under five in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria; the study shows that a percentage below 10% was recorded for the parents of under five that uses mosquito nets.
The survey went on to show that some of the preventive measures that was reportedly adopted included the use of the following: Windows- 16.5%, door nets –15.6%, insecticide and aerosol –33.8%, mosquito repellents about 22.7% and herbs was about 23.0%.
Malaria is the most occouring parasitic endemic disease in Africa, although it is preventable, treatable and curable, but yet it is one of the major health problems in Nigeria. The malaria effect and signs in the country is getting worser despite numerous interventions that have been used for the prevention. The blockage to the success of some the interventions are observed to be socio-cultural, economic and political in nature. Malaria is stated to be the most alarming cause of death and deformity in children under five in the country. In Nigeria today, modern medicine tends to interpret health in terms of medical interventions, and discuss more on the importance of medical technologies. It is mostly ideal to promote the concept and qualities of health as a result of the interaction of human beings and their surrounding environment. Behavioural change communication aimed at making sure that individuals, families, communities and health workers are taking preventive measures to prevent disease, improve on their knowledge of malaria and use of antimalarial drugs accordingly. There should be more efforts to facilitate a smooth transition into the use of Arthemisin based combination theraphy (ACTs). Intensive BBC and capacity development should be directed towards the user of the maleria drugs and all cadres of health providers through under listed means.
Today if we decide to compare Africa with the rest of the world we will see to it that African have a greater burden of the issue of maleria; in Africa and other south of sahara, it is noticed that maleria infections caused by plasmodium falciparum is most severe and posed danger to the lives of the people in that environment.
In Nigeria today poor infrastructures like good hospital tends to increase the campaign against maleria. We have only noticed few benefit from the history on the fight against maleria in most part of Nigeria.
Series of programme have been implemented to see to the complete eradication of maleria parasite one of these programme is the Roll Back Maleria; this strategy in its own way played an improtant role in the complete detection and eradication of maleria parasite though rapid treatement, multiple prevention, good action, flexible and dynamic global movement.
In Nigeria there should be need for the involvement of community health worker as they will help in the completion and ease of service to fight against mosquito infection in most of the communites in Nigeria. community health workers helps in delivery of health services in general, and preventive health measures, in particular.
The involvement of community workers helps mediate socioeconomic differences within communities, the overall health improvements achievable through community-based interventions by the federal governement of Nigeria, the world health organisation and the community workers tends to be on the increase.
The study tend to put Anambra State into consideration to elicit information on the understanding of both behavioural and non-behavioural factors that are crucial for the design of appropriate interventions for tackling malaria. This study also aims to assess the effect of health education intervention on malaria prevention in communities in Anambra State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In the world today the mortality rate from the maleria is running into millions; this disease is becoming a huge burden for people in Africa and other under developed countries; because of this, the economic development of this region is growing at a lower rate.
In Nigeria today according to the National Maleria Control Programme; maleria parasite is responsible for more than sixty percent outpatient that visits; there have also been recorded that at least 24% of children dies on yearly bases from maleria. The federal government of Nigeria have recorded about more than 130 million naira anually according to (Pharmanews, 2003) in terms of treatment costs, cost for prevention and lost of man-hours put into maleria programme.
As at April in the year 2000, the international community and most of the African nations met at a summit in Abuja, Nigeria, the essence of the meeting was to see how to reduce the mortality rate among the African peoples by maleria.
Recently the federal government of Nigeria have introduced health education programme and community workers with effort to reduce the burden place on the people of Anambra state by maleria. The federal government of Nigeria through the WHO have come up with strategy that will run from 2016 to 2030 to see how to reduce the effect of maleria to at least 90%, they also plan to reduce mortality rate from maleria to at least 90%.
Some time ago the aim of maleria prevention seems like a waste of time and resources but with this new strategies by the federal government of Nigeria by the introduction of health education programme and with the help of community workers, the new strategy might be successful.
This study is therefore interested in the comparative investigation of the preveious method used by the federal government of Nigeria in the fight against maleria and the intoduction of health education and community workers using Anambra State as a case study.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of the study a comparative study on health education intervention on maleria prevention in communities in Nigeria is stated below:
1. To examine the role of health education intervention on the control of maleria
2. To determine the effect of community workers on the control and prevention of maleria in Anambra state.
3. To discuss the roles of community workers in socio economic development of Anambra State.
4. To determine the effect of maleria paraiste on human health
5. To determine the difference between the Roll Back Maleria (RBM) programme and the introdution of health education and community workers.
6. To discuss the help of the federal government through the world health organisation (WHO) in the prevention and control of maleria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to achieve the above stated objectives the study came up with the following questions:
1. What is the role of health education intervention on the control of maleria?
2. What is the effect of community workers on the control and prevention of maleria in Anambra state?
3. What is the effect of maleria paraiste on human health?
4. Is there any difference between the Roll Back Maleria (RBM) programme and the introdution of health education and community workers?
5. What are the roles of community workers in socio economic development of Anambra State?
6. What are the roles of the federal government of Nigeria and the world health organisation (WHO) in the prevention and control of maleria?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant difference between the introduction of health education and the Roll Back Maleria (RBM) in the prevention and control of maleria.
H1: There is a significant difference between the introduction of health education and the Roll Back Maleria (RBM) in the prevention of maleria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study will be of immense benefit to both researchers, students, the community of Anambra state and the nation as a whole as it will discuss the various ways of maleria prevention, the study will also the need for the services of community workers in the prevention of maleria in the community, the study will also discuss the effect of maleria on human health. Finally the study will discuss the difference between the Roll Back Maleria (RBM) programme and the introdution of health education and community workers.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will be limited to health education intervention in communities of Anambra State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Financial constraints tend to impede the study ability to get all the materials needed for the study, but the researcher was able to get meaningful information about the topic with the materials available.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: the researcher being a student will be involved in other departmental activities such as seminar presentation, submission of assignment and so on but the research student was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
COMPARATIVE: is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, quantity, or degree; it is one of the degrees of comparison, alongside the positive and the superlative.
MALERIA: Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
INTERVENTION: is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people; usually family and friends to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem.
COMMUNITY: a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.
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