CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Global consumption of poultry and its products especially meat, has consistently increased over the years and this trend is expected to continue. Much of this increase in global demand will be in developing countries resulting in a profound effect on the demand for feed and its raw materials (Chinedu and Evans,2001). It had been established that the principal item in raising poultry is the price of the feed, amounting to about 70.00 – 80.00 % of the total production cost (Kehinde et al., 2006; Bello et al., 2007), the livestock sub-sector contributed about 24.18 % from an initial value of
23.86 % in the fourth quarter of 2014 of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Nigeria, (CBN, 2016).
Poultry in particular occupies an important position in the supply of animal protein to Nigerian‟s teeming and growing population (Chinedu and Evans, 2001). Unfortunately, the interest in chicken farming is dwindling steadily over the years as a result of the animal`s susceptibility to various epidemic diseases leading to records of its high mortality, coupled with its high feed intake and demand for larger space for production compared with other smaller birds such as quails,which have compelled farmers to seek for an alternative source of poultry meat, prompting the recent attention being shifted to quail farming mainly in developing countries, to enable its populace, meet the daily safe protein intake recommendation of FAO (1997) placed at 45.00 g/ 60.00 kg body weight per individual. Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) are small birds belonging to the phasianoidea family of the order galliforme of the class aves in the animal kingdom.
Since they were introduced into the Nigerian Poultry Industry in 1992 (Haruna et al.,1997), it has the potential to serve as an excellent and cheap source of animal protein for Nigerians (Babangida and Obosi, 2006; Ani et al., 2009). They have very short generation interval, matures early (35 days), hence can lay between 200 to 300 eggs annually (Salim and Ibrahim, 2004). Owing to its very tender, tasty and highly acceptable meat and the uniform cholesterol in their eggs, they have become alternative animal protein sources (Sule et al., 2015).
They are one of the classes of poultry with potential as sources of good quality animal protein as egg and meat (Widya et al., 2014). The meat type quail rearing is a common practice meant to bridge the gap between present demand and supply of animal protein. The efficiency of broiler quails to convert feed into meat, play a key role in the economics of the broiler industry (Chimote et al., 2009). They provide developing countries with a stable source of protein and developed countries a suitable alternative to chicken. It however finds its true economic and commercial value in its egg production, as domesticated lines of the Japanese quails can lay up to 300 eggs a year, at an appreciably efficient feed to egg conversion ratio (Haruna et al., 1997).
They have a short generation interval making it possible to propagate many generations in a year with an early sexual maturity, since they start laying as early as 5-6 weeks of age., They have a fast growth rate: attaining a market weight of 150 – 180 g at 6 weeks (Anon, 1991), with a high rate of lay, quails can produce between 250 – 280 eggs per year (NRC, 1991). Requires less floor space for management, because of their smaller body size, 8 – 10 adult quails can be reared in a space meant for one adult chicken, average of 1square feet/bird (Anon, 1991). Farmers in Vom have found it very useful in enhancing soil fertility. Estimates have shown that 6 to 8 quails can produce 35.00 kg of manure per year (Haruna et al., 1997).
It has and is still playing active role in the lives of humanity since the 12th century and has continued to play major roles in industries and scientific research institutes. They are easily managed, fast growing and can produce eggs at a high rate hence have been farmed in large quantities across the globe (Hubrecht and Kirkwood, 2010). They have enormous potentiality and could be an alternative to chicken farming particularly in providing gainful employments, supplementary income and as a valuable source of meat and eggs (Abu et al., 2016).
In recent years, the supply of maize (the main source of energy in poultry feeds) which contributes the highest proportion of ingredients in poultry diet formulation (Agbede et al., 2002) has not kept pace with demand. This may be attributed to inadequate production due to climate changes, coupled with the stiff competition for its utilization between man and livestock and its increased use for bio – fuel (fuels produced from plants) production in the developed countries due to its starch contents. It had been reported that the level of performance of livestocks in the livestock production industry have gone down remarkably below expectation due to the high cost of production, mainly arising from the costs of the conventional feed ingredients of protein and energy sources (Dairu and Ogunmodede, 2004).
There is therefore the need to explore alternative and cheaper energy sources for poultry feeding. Mango seed kernels have been found to be one of such alternative sources of energy (Diarra et al., 2011).
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belongs to the family Amacardiacae. It is a large green tree that can reach 15 to 30 m tall (Teguia, 1995).The seed is a good source of soluble carbohydrates, the protein content of the seed ranges between 7.00 – 8.75 % (Diarra et al., 2008; Abdullahi et al., 2012) comparable to that of maize, but it has a higher fat content (7.80 – 13.09 %) than maize (Bala, 2010).The kernel is very low in minerals. One major constraint to the effective utilization of this mango seed kernel meal in poultry diet is the presence of tannin (Bala, 2010) a chemical which exert anti- nutritional effect on feed utilization in poultry (Teguia, 1995) and in man (Teguia and Beynen, 2005).
Recently, so many researchers have devised different processing methods aimed at reducing the toxic effects of this chemical for an effective utilization by both the animals and man such as boiling (Diarra et al., 2008), soaking (Bala 2010; Abdullahi et al., 2012), use of exogenous enzymes (Fagbemi and Oluwasola, 1998; Ka`ankuka et al., 2012), thermal processing and radiation (Farrag, 2001), cooking (Diarra and Usman, 2011) and the use of chemical reagents (Mueller, 2001).
Justification for the Study
Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO (1997) reported the recommended daily consumption of animal protein to be 56.00 g/60.00 kg body weight per day per person. However, Nigerians have not been able to meet this requirement due to the high cost of the products, meeting only about 15.00 gm of protein intake per day (Christopher and Diarrinitiah, 1997).
The high cost of feed still remains the greatest constraint to poultry production in the country. The ever increasing competition between man and livestock for energy
concentrates as feed stuff materials (cereal gains such as maize, millet, guinea corn, rice) prompted the search for an alternatively cheaper, easily available and toxic free unconventional feed sources with no direct nutritional value to man, composed mainly of non – cereal energy sources for poultry feeding (Diarra, 2014) this is coupled with the cost, supply, hence expensive nature of maize which is the main energy source for poultry (Diarra and Usman, 2011).
Mango seed as a by-product of mango pulp has been reported to be a good source of starch (Diarra et al., 2008). The ease, availability and lower cost of processing the mango seed kernel meal makes it a cheaper alternative energy source. The findings of the present study will also contribute to the current clamour of “environmental safety” from pollution when livestock producers and feed millers begin to utilize mango seed kernel as a replacement for maize in feed processing. It will also reduce the hazard of environmental pollution of mango seeds particularly during the mango season.
This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effects of mango seed kernel meal (L. Kanbiri) processed by soaking with and without enzymes supplementation on the growth and laying performance of Japanese quails.