1.1 Background to the Study
Integrated farming system is simply the combination of the
best and modern farming tools and technologies with some elements of
traditional practices, depending on a given site and situation. This system
enables farmers to identify opportunities or threats and allows them to respond
accordingly, particularly with the consumers interest at heart.
Multiple objectives are involved in integrated farming such
as sustainability, food security, poverty alleviation etc., which also involves
the use of output of one enterprise whenever feasible.
Integrated farming system is a biologically integrated
systems, which integrates natural resources in a regulation mechanism into
farming activities to achieve maximum replacement of off-farm inputs, secures
sustainable production of high quality food and other products through
ecologically preferred technologies, sustain farm income, eliminates or reduces
sources of present environmental pollutions generated by agriculture and
sustains the multiple function of agriculture Iobc, (1993)
Edwards, (2007) defined the integrated farming system as an
aquaculture system that is integrated with livestock’s and in which fresh
animal waste is used to feed fish and also reported that there are synergies
and complementary between enterprises that comprise a crop and animal component
that form the basis of the concept of integrated farming system. According to
this concept, integration usually occurs when outputs of one enterprise are
used as inputs by another within the context of the farming system. FAO, (2012)
stated that “there is no waste”, and “waste is only a misplaced resource which
can become a valuable material for another product” integrated farming system.
In Nigeria, the farmers maintain different enterprises for
their complementary and supplementary nature and for ensuring sustainable
livelihood from time immemorial. After the advent of green revolution in the
late 1970s and economic liberalization in early 1990s, the farmers gradually
started focusing on a few enterprises due to several imposing factors including
shrinking farm sizes, fluctuating commodity price, livelihood diversification
and shortage of labour during peak agricultural season. It had a severe impact
on food and nutritional security of millions of poor farm households. The
anguish of farmers is often expressed in terms of their agitation in one or the
other parts of the country, unwillingness to continue farming and increasing
demands of compensating their economic loss. Although suggestions are pouring
in from experts and leaders of organization for strengthening the income base
farmers, the government cannot implement them entirely due to compulsions from
socio-economic and political considerations. However, the government of Nigeria
has made an announcement about Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many factors appear to constrain close integration of
traditional poultry and fish culture. The poor quality supplementary feeds
usually given and the fact that confinement is restricted to overnight, result
in less and poorer quality manure being available for use in fish culture.
Moreover, farm households may already be using the poultry waste which is
collectable for other purposes such as fertilizing backyard crops. Recent
analysis of current poultry production in small-scale farming households
reveals a marginal but important niche.
In view of the foregoing, the following questions arise:
i How do we design integrated farming system for sustainable
ii What are the effects of poultry farming on fish farming
in an integrated farming system?
iii What are the effects of fish farming system on crop
farming system in an integrated farming system?
iv What are the effect of poultry, fish, and farming system
on integrated farming system for sustainable agriculture?
The broad objective of the study is to: access the effect of
integrated farming system on sustainable agriculture.
The specific objectives are to be able to:
design integrated farming system for sustainable agriculture.
assess the effect of poultry farming on fish farming in an integrated
assess the effect of fish farming system on crop farming system in an
integrated farming system.
the effect of poultry, fish, and farming system on integrated farming system
for sustainable agriculture.
1.4 Justification to the Study
This study will give an insight in identifying the
socio-personal and socio-economic characteristics of integrated farming system
farmers in relation to sustainable livelihood.
The study will help explore the various constraints
experienced by the integrated farmers which are responsible for low
productivity of farming systems.
The study will guide researchers in deriving insight in
investigating and understanding the impacts of integrated farming system within
and beyond the study area.