BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is a
common knowledge that in public establishments government work is no man’s work
and government work can never finish, hence workers handled their jobs in
slippery manner. They demonstrate these by showing little or no seriousness in
performing their jobs. Such general
believe lead to poor attitude to work which can affect the performance of
public organization thereby leading to their inefficiency and low productivity.
Productivity, is a measure of the efficiency
of a person, machine, system, in converting inputs into useful
output.(www.businessdictionary.com). It can be expressed as the ratio of output
to input used in the production process. When all outputs are included in the
productivity measure it is called total productivity. However for workers to
fully put in his best he need to be satisfy on the job his is doing. According
to Victor Harold Vroom (work and motivation 1964), assert that the more a
worker is satisfied with the type of job he does, the more energy he exert on
its performance and willingness to remain on the job.
beings are not like machines; therefore, adequate attention should be given to
them to encourage them to make them happy. The rise in the interest and moral
of workers produces efficiency. Effective performance on the part of employee
is essential for the success of any organization. An understanding of what
motivate the individual is needed to reveal how abilities and skills are
activated including their potentials.
low productivity refers to the inability of our public organization to produce
up to installed capacity. It is when the organization produces up to installed
capacity or something nearer that one can say that such public organization is
doing well. Nigeria is blessed with fiscal and human resources necessary for
industrial development and buoyant economy. It has a large expanding market as
well as an emerging and aggressive group capable of exploiting opportunities in
both domestic and foreign market.
But it is a pity that low productivity in our public
organizations dominate discussion in many circles in Nigeria today. They have
continued to witness increase in low productivity in recent time. Nigeria
public organizations have failed to achieve their over-all objectives and
targets as organizations. In Nigeria there seems to be high level of
lackadaisical attitude among government employees and corruption is also very
high. Governments have introduced
various reforms aimed at improving the performance of public organization in
Nigeria, but to no avail.
The Nigeria Institute
for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) is a government owned research center primarily
dealing with palm trees and also research in other economic crops mostly
coconut for farmers in Nigeria and other countries. Despite federal government
support to this institute, the performances still remain very low. But it is a
pity that Low productivity in our Public organization dominates discussion in
many circles in Nigeria today. They have continue to witness increase low
productivity in recent time. Nigeria public organizations have failed to
achieve their over-all objectives and targets as organizations. In Nigeria
there seems to be a high level of lacalaxical attitude among government
employees and corruption is also very high.
Governments have introduced various reforms aimed at improving the
performance of public organization in Nigeria, but to no avail.
Nevertheless, the success of any organization depends upon
the behavior and interest of employees. The goal of any organization is
achieved through the right direction of human behavior in a desired manner.
Where these are not properly managed can lead to poor performance of workers in
organization. For the past many decades, Nigeria Government recorded and
experienced poor attitude from both private and public corporations. This sad
experience took a mounting turn to nowadays. Government has done a lot in their
effort to revive this culture but all was to no avail. There is a wide spread
interest in improving the level of poor attitude to work in organizations.
Apart from the economic benefits of better preparing workers for unprecedented
demands of modern workplace, there are also social benefits tied to improving
performance and access for larger number of workers to post-organizational
learning, training and development opportunities and laying stronger foundation
to skills for life –long learning. Guerreror and Sire,(2000) if the worker have
negative attitude towards work, the consequence can create problem in applying
the prescribed job design, which means there will be failure in accomplishing
organizational goals. The good thing in raising the level of attitude has led
to a focus on identifying the range of causes that shape poor attitude as well
as understanding how these causes operate to limit or enhance the performance
The role of worker attitude is to lay the foundation for
further performance and if a good foundation is laid at workers level there is
likely to be improvement at other level. However different organizations at
different times have passed the blame of poor attitude in organization to the
workers, because of their low achievement, low motivation and the likes.
DeSimione and Harris (1998) concurred that the possible influences on worker’s
behavior are internal factors such as motivation, ability ,attitude, knowledge
and skills. Morakinyo (2003) stated that fallen level of workers performance is
attributable to owner’s none-use of supervisory strategies.
It is obvious that if Nigeria society must survive, people
must work. The working culture however, varies from society to society and also
from organization to organization. Long et al.(2012) suggested that people are
seeking many ways of live that is meaningful and less complicated and this new
lifestyle actually has an impact on how employee must be motivated and managed.
Due to importance of work productivity, so many literatures have been written
with regards to different aspects of expectations from production. Workers no
matter the organization or establishment, have their expectation ranging from
the issues of getting adequate payment from whatever they are doing, being
secured in their place of work, being placed and recognized as significant in
the organization, equipped with necessary tools, skill and equipment for the
accomplishment of organization’s goals. While we see these conditions as vital
for every worker, some scholars tend to see them as necessary only for
managerial cadre of an organization. If the managers are well equipped with the
above factors, they will be able to run their organization successfully.
Consequence of this work stress, worker productivity will be affected and as we
know productivity is money, in order to avoid this unhealthy situation happen,
we should provide a comfortable and appropriate working environment facilities
that suits to humans needs ( Asmui et.al 2012).
where the work is quite difficult workers have their expectations in terms of
reward, if this is not met, the tendency for the workers to develop negative
attitude to their work is high. The general position here is that the
socio-economic systems that are operating in organizations today goes to a
great extent to determining workers attitude. The logic is that the system
determines the working place environment itself. Thus the workers response to
his work is the definition of situation he found himself. Employees today are
dealing with more complicated work tasks, often work long hours, and work in
teams (Lee, 2004).
Therefore this study focused on the performance of Nigeria
Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City Edo state, in realizing its
1.2 STATEMENT OF
the background, this study is to examine the performance of Nigeria Institute
for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City in Edo state. Nigeria Institute For
oil Palm Research has the mandate of breeding high quality palm seedlings,
considering the present economic importance of the product to the country. It
is very important to look at the factors that militate against the low
production of high quality palm seedlings by Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm
Research (NIFOR) and suggest a way of controlling them. In line with this
analysis, the researcher proposed the following research questions.
What are the factors responsible for low performance in
Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City?
Has corruption led to inefficiency in Nigeria Institute for
Oil Palm Benin City?
How does poor attitude of workers in Nigeria Institute for
Oil Palm Research Benin City affect its performance?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the low
performance of Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City in
Edo state Nigeria. While the specific objectives are:
To investigate factors responsible for low performance in
Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City Edo state.
To find out whether corruption is responsible for Nigeria
Institute for Oil Palm Research inefficiency.
To examine the extent to which workers attitude affects
performance of Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research.
OF THE STUDY
The study has both theoretical and
practical contribution. Theoretically, it will add to existing knowledge of
public administration and management. In other words it will improve the
existing literature and policies that can lead to high organizational
performance and efficiency. Also it will provide valuable information to
students doing research work on performance of public organization especially
on Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City.
practical significance of this study, the findings of this study will help
management of Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research to be aware of the
challenges responsible for her low performance. Also it will help other
stakeholders in management to adhere to solution provided from this study on
how to improve performance in organization through motivations.
it is expected that when the findings are enforced the workers moral in
organizations will increase and will improve their performance, high productivity
and harmony among individual staff.