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MANAGEMENT AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING IN NIGERIAN WATERS



Abstract

The study examines the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in Nigerian waters, how maintaininga legal and regulated fishing system in Nigeria is a pre-requisite for the growth and development of the Nigerian economy, to examine theprevalence of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters, to examine the consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters, to examine factors that has militated against cordial management of fishing in Nigeria, to propose ways of improving fishing in Nigerian waters.

The methodology of the study cited the population of the study area with the sampling techniques used to ascertain the sampling size for this research work. It also explained the mode of data collection and analysis; Questionnaires were used to sample people’s opinion while carrying out the survey. The researcher discarded the secondary data designs so as to get new, accurate findings and data analysis on the subject matter.  Base on finding, the study has the sample size of one hundred (100) respondents.

From the result and the conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are made by the researcher,fishing should be properly managed and well regulated, it would pave room for more Nigerians to become interested in fishing and by so doing, more and more corporate individuals and even the government will begin to appreciate and support the idea behind fishing in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY-------------------------------------------

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM-----------------------------------------

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY--------------------------------------------

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS---------------------------------------------------

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS--------------------------------------------------

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY-------------------------------------------

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY-------------------------------

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS-----------------------------------------------------

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------------------

2.2THE CONCEPT OF ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED FISHING----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3 IMPORTANCE OF FISHING AND IMPLICATION OF IUU TO THE ECONOMY--------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4 THE STRUCTURE AND FEATURES OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5 IUU AND RELATED MATTERS-----------------------------------------------

2.6 EVIDENCE OF IUU IN NIGERIA---------------------------------------------

2.7 FISHERIES LAWS AND REGULATIONS------------------------------------

2.8 FISHING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE NOT REAPONSIBLE-------------------

2.9 POLICY FRAMEWORK AND INTERVENTIONS TO CONTROL ILLEGAL FISHING-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.10 ILLEGALITIES ON ISSUES OF FISHING----------------------------------

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1RESEARCH DESIGN-----------------------------------------------------------

3.2 STUDY AREA-------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURES-----------------------------------

3.4DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT------------------------------------------

3.5ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT---------------

3.6 DATA PRESENTATION---------------------------------------------------------

3.7    STATISTICAL TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS-----------------------------

CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS OF DATA AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

4.1:   INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------------------

4.2:   DATA ANALYSIS--------------------------------------------------------------

4.3:   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS--------------------------------------------------

5.2    CONCLUSION---------------------------------------------------------------

5.3    RECOMMENDATION------------------------------------------------------

REFERENCES

QUESTIONNAIRE

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

West Africa’s waters are endowed with one of the world’s richest concentration of finfish, crustaceans and mollusks (Tobor, 1989). In contrast, its coastal fishing communities are amongst the most impoverished and therefore vulnerable to Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing by foreign fishing vessels (FAO, 1995).

The increased efforts of the present administration in Nigeria to drive the development of the fisheries industry which has been taking shape to the applause of many stakeholders, is being plagued with a major challenge of illegal fishing in its territorial waters, which according to a recent report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) results in an annual loss of over $60 million and has been identified as a major clog in the wheel of the development of the sub-sector.Many marine and coastal ecosystems are close to collapse due to Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, also known as Pirate fishing. Global losses from IUU fishing range from $10bn – $23.5billion annually as the harvest from IUU fishing represents almost one-fifth of the entire global catch.

IUU fishing is easy and highly lucrative due to lack of monitoring and enforcement especially in West Africa. These pirates target places called Inshore Exclusive Zones (IEZ) – which were created to protect shallow coastal waters where fishes come to reproduce (FAO, 2001). They target high value species whilst generating a huge amount of unwanted by-catch which is then tossed into the oceans dead or dying.Coastal communities across West Africa are reporting a dramatic decline in the amount of fishes caught (FAO, 2001). As a result, they spend longer time at sea for fewer and smaller fish. This is because the rate of harvest far outstrips that of replenishment.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in its 2015 biennial report to Congress on IUU fishing has identified Nigeria as one of the six nations including Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua and Mexico in which IUU fishing is very rampant and as such is threatening the current efforts to secure long term sustainable fisheries as well as promote healthier and more robust ecosystems.In a bid to tackle the situation, the United States has declared that if any of the listed nations do not take sufficient action as well as receive a positive certification in the next biennial report, it may prohibit the import of fisheries products from that nation and deny port privileges to their fishing vessels.

In Nigeria, the fisheries resources poached within territorial waters include shrimps, tuna, and sharks, among others. The estimated value of catches exploited by IUU fishing is enormous, up to30 million US dollars per annum. It is unfortunate that illegal fishing activities, particularly those committed by foreign private fishing vessels, continue unabated and unchallenged due to the lack of an adequate monitoring, control and surveillance structure with regards to both equipment and management systems in the developing West Africa sub-region.

Nigeria with her vast coastlines,is blessed with valuable aquatic resources of commercial interest, particularly in the global market. It would therefore be desirable to undertake a detailed study of IUU activities in order to stop illegal plundering of fisheries resources in the West African Country of Nigeria through proper management and policy framework. It is envisaged that this would contribute to the attainment of sustainable fisheries management in Nigeria and the West Africa sub-region at large.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU)Fisheries are a global phenomenon which require an international, holistic and coordinated approach in order to stem these distasteful activities.

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing has many facets and motivations, although the mostobvious underlying motivations are driven by economic considerations. Other considerations likely to contributeto IUU fishing include the existence of excess fleet capacity, the payment of government subsidies (where they maintain or increase capacity), strong market demand for particular products, weak national fishery administration (includingweak reporting systems), poor regional fisheries management, and ineffective monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) including the lackof vessel monitoring systems (VMS). A key consideration in addressing IUU fishing is the need to achieve effective flag State control over the operations of fishing vessels. However, this study will examine the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters.


MANAGEMENT AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING IN NIGERIAN WATERS


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All Project Materials Inc. (2020). MANAGEMENT AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING IN NIGERIAN WATERS. Available at: https://allprojectmaterials.com/department/paper-6710.html. [Accessed: ].

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