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MMETXTA USORO NKUZI MGBADO XKWX N’QRX N’IHE NNWETA N’ULE XMXAKWXKWQ SINIQ SEKQNDIRI N’QMXMX EDEMEDE IGBO N’OKPURU QCHICHI NSXKA NA STEETI ENUGWU



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Ntqala Nchqcha

    Otu ihe pxtara ihe mmadx nwere nke q gagh[ ewezuganwu na ndx ya bx asxsx, niihi na asxsx bx ihe na-eweta mmekqr[ta n’etiti mmadx na ibe ya. Mmekqr[ta a na-apxtakar[ ihe na mkpar[taxka na-ad[ n’etiti nd[ ji asxsx arx qrx. Nke a ka Robin (2013) ji kqwaa asxsx d[ka ukwu qd[mara nke nd[ mmadx ji akpar[taxka  ma na-ezipxta echiche ha n’xd[ ekwurunqqnx mabx edereede. Mgbodile (1999) n’echiche nke ya kqwara na asxsx bx akqrqngwa kachas[ d[ mkpa na ndx mmadx maka ibiko qnx, iche echiche, ime omume na [txlekqr[ta uche. Echiche Anukam (1999) yitekwara nke Mgbodile niihi na q kqwara na asxsx na-enyere mmadx aka [rx qrx d[ iche iche d[ka izikqr[ta ozi, inwe mmekqr[ta, [mx ihe, ichekwaba ihe na kwa iji mee ka omenaala nd[ bxrx nke na-esi n’otu qgbq  fere n’qzq.

    Asxsx mere ka mmadx d[ iche n’etiti xmxanxmanx nd[ qzq. Iji kwado nke a, Farinde (2005) na Azikiwe (2007) mere ka a mata na asxsx bx otu ihe njirimara mere ka mmadx d[ elu kar[a xmx obere anxmanx nd[ qzq. Q bx eziokwu na xmxanxmanx nd[ qzq nwere ike izir[ta onwe ha ozi n’xd[ imeghar[ ahx ha n’xzq d[ iche iche, mana usoro nzikqr[ta ozi ha ahx etozugh[ [kpq asxsx niihi na o nweghi njirimara asxsx d[ka ito eto na [mxba amxba. Q bx njirimara asxsx nd[ a ka Anagbogu, Mba na Eme (2002) jiri kqwaa na asxsx bx xzq mmadx na-esite  n’xda olemaole mebe okwu nd[ e nweghi ike [gxta qnx; bx nke anx nd[ qzq enweghi ike ime n’usoro nzikqr[ta ozi nke ha. Ihe nke a na-egosi bx na asxsx bx nke mmadx.

    N’agbanyegh[ na mmadx dum nq n’xwa ji asxsx arx qrx, agbxrx qbxla nwere asxsx ha na-asx. Asxsx Igbo bx asxsx nd[ Igbo, bx nd[ bi n’qwxwa anyanwx Naijir[a na-asx. Steeti nd[ e ji asxsx Igbo mara gxnyere Enugwu, Anambra, Imo, Ab[a na Ebqny[. Ezema (2011) kqwara na ihe kar[r[ pasenti iri asatq (80) bx nd[ bi na Rivers Steeti na kwa pasenti iri anq (40) na Delta Steeti na-asx Igbo. Mpaghara xfqdx na Cross River, Edo, Kogi, Akwa-Ibom na Bayelsa Steeti na-asxkwa asxsx Igbo. Niihi nke a ka Ohiri-Aniche (2008) jiri kwuo na nd[ na-asx Igbo na Naijir[a kar[r[ nde mmadx iri abxq (20 million). Williamson na Blench (2000) na Ezema (2011) gara n’ihu mee ka a mata na Igbo so n’asxsx atq nke nd[ na-asx ha kacha baa xba n’qnxqgx n’ala Naijir[a. Ikekwa, nke a so n’ihe kpatara gqvxment[ etiti Naijir[a jiri kwado ka asxsx Igbo soro n’asxsx ala Naijir[a atq (Hausa, Igbo na Yoruba) a hqtara a ga na-amx n’xlq akwxkwq. Ihe butere [hqrq asxsx ahqqrq bx na agbxrx na asxsx e nwere na Naijir[a bara xba, ma q gagh[ ad[ mfe itinye ha dum n’ihe a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq. Kaosila d[, qmxmx xfodx asxsx obodo a n’xlqakwxkwq d[ mkpa maka agbxrx d[ iche iche a [ghqta onwe ha.  Q bx nke a ka iwu na-ach[kwa mmxta n’ala Naijir[a (National Policy on Education NPE, 2004) jiri s[ na “Gqvxment[ nabatara uru asxsx bara d[ka xzq isi kwalite mmekqr[ta mmadx na ibe ya, nkwudosiike nke ala any[ na kwa xzq isi chekwaba omenaala. Ya mere, nwatak[r[ qbxla ga-amx asxsx a na-asx na gburugburu ya. N’[ga n’ihu, maka [d[ n’otu ala any[, a txrx anya na nwatak[r[ qbxla ga-amxkwuaz[ otu n’ime asxsx ala Naijir[a atq: Hausa, Igbo na Yoruba (p.10).” Etu a ka asxsx Igbo siri soro n’asxsx ala Naijir[a nd[ a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq malite n’ogo mmxta qtaakara. Q bxgh[ naan[ nke a, asxsx Igbo bxkwuaz[ otu n’asxsx nd[ ahx bx iwu na nwa amaala Naijir[a ga-amxr[r[ ma lee ya n’ule ngxcha akwxkwq sekqnd[r[ bx ‘Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE)’. Qmxmx na ule n’asxsx Igbo nwere ngalaba atq gxnyere omenaala, agxmagx na xtqasxsx. Omenaala d[ka Nwadike (2008) siri kqwaa ya bx ka nd[ si eme na be ha, nke metxtara asxsx, nka, okpukpere, usoro alxmalx, nkwenye na nhxrxxwa nd[. Nd[ Igbo nwere omenaala ha, bx nke na-ezipxta usoro obibi ndx ha. N’aka nke qzq, Akwanya (1999) hxtara agxmagx d[ka qrx nka nke odee na-esite na ya egosi echiche ya maqbx ihe bx eziokwu gbasatara xd[d[ ihe, mkpqrqmiihe na usoro obibi ndx nd[ mmadx na gburugburu ha. Agxmagx nwere ike [d[ n’xd[ ejije, abx maqbx iduuaz[. Xtqasxsx n’akxkx nke ya bx ihe qmxmx na-akqwa xd[ na ole xda asxsx nwere, tinyere iwu na usoro mmebe okwu na ah[r[okwu n’asxsx. Echiche Ikekonwu, Ezikeojiaku, Ubani na Ugoji (1999:44) dabara na nkqwa nke a d[ n’elu niihi na ha kqwara xtqasxsx d[ka iwu na-ach[kwa  ndqkq, nkqwa, njikwa, mkpqpxta na nghqta mkpxrxokwu na ndokwa ha n’ebe ha dabara n’usoro nd[ nwe asxsx ahx si eji asxsx ha eme ihe. Q bx n’xtqasxsx ka a na-akuzi nka asxsx anq bx nka ogige, nka okwukwu, nka qgxgx na nka odide. Nka ogige na nka qgxgx bx nka nnabata ebe nka okwukwu na nka odide bx nka mmepxta. Ma d[ka asxsx Igbo bx asxsx epum/aranne n’ebe qtxtx xmxaka nd[ na-amx asxsx Igbo na mpaghara ebe a na-eme nchqcha a nq, imirikiti n’ime ha na-enweta nka ogige na nka okwukwu n’xlq tupu ha ab[a n’xlqakwxkwq. Nka qgxgx na nka odide na-abxkar[ n’xlqakwxkwq ka ha na-anq enweta ha. Kaosila d[, ebe qrx a gbadoro xkwx bx na nka odide.

Ide ihe bx xzq mmadx na-esi n’xzq qd[mara asxsx nabatara egosi mmetxta na echiche ya n’ebe qgxx nq. Q bxkwa nka a na-enweta n’xlqakwxkwq site n’[mx ka e si ede ihe.Turk na Kirkman (1991) kwadoro nke a wee kwuo na nka odide bx nka mmadx na-enweta site n’omume (practice). Nke a na-egosi na q bxgh[ nka a na-enweta site n’ige onye nkuzi nt[, d[ka e nwere ike ime na nnweta nka ogige na nka okwukwu. Q bx ya ka Azikiwe (2007) jiri kwuo na nka odide bx nka asxsx kachas[ sie ike. Ihe Azikiwe jiri kwuo nke a bx na nka a hiwere isi na mmadx iche echiche, hazie echiche ya ma were nka na usoro odide asxsx ahx nabatara dee ya n’xzq d[ mma. Ike ide ihe bx otu qkpxrxkpx ihe na-ebute nd[iche n’etiti nd[ gxrx akwxkwq na  nd[ agxgh[. Q bxkwa otu xzq pxtara ihe e si achqpxta ihe xmxakwxkwq ma, na kwa xzq isi nwalee ha n’ule. Nke a na-egosi na nnweta nka odide ga-enyere xmxakwxkwq aka n’izipxta echiche ha n’xzq doro anya. Q bxkwanx ya mere e ji akuzi nka odide ruo n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu. Xzq pxtawagara ihe e si akuzi nka odide n’ogo mmxta sekqnd[r[ txmad[ sekqnd[r[ ukwu bx site n’edemede.

Edemede d[ka Nwadike (1993) siri kqwaa ya bx edereede nke na-gosipxta xzq mmadx siri were asxsx kwara ngwaqrx iji kqwapxta ihe o bu n’uche nke qma. Anqzie (2001) hxtakwara edemede d[ ka mgbal[ odee gbal[r[ chee echiche maka isiokwu qbxla, ma zipxta uche ya n’xzq a haziri ahazi gbasara isiokwu ahx. Nkqwa Nwadike na nke Anqzie na-egosi na q bx ihe mmadx chepxtara n’obi ya ma detuo ya n’xzq doro anya maka qgxgx ka a na-akpq edemede. Nwadike mekwara ka a mata na q bx asxsx bx ngwaqrx odee nwere maka izipxta echiche ya ahx. Ihe nke a pxtara bx na edemede na-egosi ole mmxta odee nwere n’asxsx o ji ede edemede ya. Q bx ya ka Nwadike (1993) jiri gaa n’ihu kqwaa na edemede kacha baa uru na ngalaba asxsx niile niihi na q bx site na ya ka qmxx si amxta ma nka qsxsx ma nka odide n’xzq doro anya na n’xzq d[ ire. Niihi uru edemede bara na ndx  nwataakwxkwq na-amx asxsx Igbo, gqvxment[ etiti mere ka mbunuche nke abxq maka nkuzi asxsx Igbo n’ogo siniq sekqnd[r[  bxrx ide Igbo izugbe  nke qma site n’iji xtqasxsx dabara adaba,akpaalaokwu, atxmatxokwu dabara adaba, qkaasxsx Igbo,nsoroedide Igbo na irighiri ihe nd[ qzq e ji achq edemede mma, (Federal Ministry of Education, 2007:ii).  Nke a gosiri na nwataakwxkwq na-amx asxsx Igbo kwesiri [ma ka e si eji ya ede edemede tupu q bxrx onye nwere mmxta zuru oke ma kwxrx ch[m n’asxsx Igbo. Mkpa edemede d[ mere xlq qrx bqqdx na-ahx maka ule ‘Senior Secondray School Cretificate Examination (SSCE)’, bx WAEC na NECO jri tinye edemede n’ime silabxs ihe qmxmx a ga-akuziri xmxakwxkwq sekqnd[r[. Ha mekwara ka q bxrx iwu na nwataakwxkwq ga-azar[r[ otu ajxjx sitere n’edemede oge a na-ele ule SSCE. Iji maa atx, a txrx anya na nwataakwxkwq qbxla ga-ahqrq otu n’ajxjx edemede ise a na-ajx n’ule WAEC na kwa NECO, nke na-ebu maak[  iri abxq na ise (25) maqbx maak[ iri atq (30). Nke a gosiri na edemede abxgh[ ihe a ga-eleghara anya na nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx Igbo maka na q bxrx na nwataakwxkwq amxta ka e si ede edemede d[ mma, q ga-enye aka n’[kwalite ihe mnweta n’ule ya n’asxsx Igbo.

Kaosila d[, Onyeisi ule WAEC (2008; 2009; 2010) kqwara na xmxakwxkwq emegh[ nke qma n’ule a etu a txrx anya. Imaatx, ozi Onyeisi ule WAEC maka pepa nke abxq (2008; 2009; 2010) kwuru na: …xfqdx xmxakwxkwq edezugh[ ogo a chqrq n’edemede nke bx nar[ mpxrxokwu atq (300) maqbx peji abxq na qkara. Xfqdx hqqrq isiokwu ha amagh[ nke mere ka az[za ha pee mpe. Xfqdx amagh[ etinye akaraedide ebe xfqdx ejigh[ qtqgraf[ Igbo izugbe ede ihe… Ihe nd[ a mere ka maak[ ha d[ ala (http://waeconline.org.ng/e-learning/Igbo/Igbomain.html).

 Ozi a na-egosi na xmxakwxkwq na-enwe nsogbu n’ihe gbasatara ide edemede ma si etu a na-enwe maak[ d[ ala n’asxsx Igbo n’ule WAEC. Qtxtx ihe ka a na-ele anya nwere ike ibute qgbatauhie n’ebe nkuzi na qmxmx edemede nakwa qmxmx asxsx Igbo Izugbe d[. Xfqdx n’ime ha gxnyere xkq nd[ nkuzi tozuru etozu, enwegh[ oge zuru oke, ejigh[ usoro nkuzi dabara, xbara qnxqgx xmxakwxkwq, nsogbu olund[, ajq akparamaagwa nd[ Igbo na-akpaso asxsx ha, na qtxtx ihe nd[ qzq. Nwadike (1993) rxtxrx aka na gqvxment[ anagh[ eziga qtxtx nd[ nkuzi Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq. Q kqwara na qtxtx oge, na q bx naan[ otu onye nkuzi Igbo maqbx abxq ka a na-eziga n’xlqakwxkwq sekqnd[r[ qnxqgx xmxakwxkwq ha kar[r[ akar[. Ihe nwere ike iso kpata nke a bx na qnxqgx nd[ na-amx maka ikuzi asxsx Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu  na-epe mpe. Imaatx, onye nchqcha chqpxtara na n’ime mmadx iri na asaa (17) ha d[ na klaas[ na-achq inweta nzere Digirii Mastas, na q bx naan[ mmadx abxq n’ime ha na-amx maka nkuzi asxsx Igbo, otu onye na-amx maka French ebe mmadx iri na anq nd[ qzq na-amx maka nkuzi asxsx Bekee. Etu a ka q d[kwa oge q na-achq inweta nzere Digrii nke mbx ya. Ihe nke a pxtara bx na a ga aka na-enwe nd[ nkuzi asxsx Bekee kar[a nke Igbo. Qnqdx d[ etu a nwere ike [me ka e nwere ikuzi asxsx Igbo nye onye qbxla na-asx asxsx Igbo. Onye d[ etu a agagh[ enwe ike ikuzi edemede maqbx asxsx Igbo nke qma maka na q gagh[ ama xmx t[[t[[ na r[[r[[ d[ n’asxsx Igbo.

    E wezuga xkq nd[ nkuzi, oge bx ihe qzq nwere ike iso na-adqghachi aka elekere azx n’ebe qmxmx edemede Igbo d[. Oge a na-enye maka qmxmx asxsx Igbo na nkegba ihe qmxmx pere mpe ma ihe a ga-amx bara xba nke ukwuu. Nke a na-eme na onye nkuzi anagh[ enwe ohere ikuzi edemede etu o kwesiri. Q na-emekwa ka q bxrx usoro ekwurunqqnx ka onye nkuzi na-agbaso n’ikuzi edemede niihi na oge ad[gh[. Nsogbu qzq yitere nke oge na usoro nkuzi bx xbara qnxqgx xmxakwxkwq a na-enwe na klaas[. Iwu na-ach[kwa mmxta n’ala Naijir[a (NPE,2004) kqwara na qnxqgx xmxakwxkwq na nd[ nkuzi n’ogo mmxta sekqnd[r[ bx xmxakwxkwq iri anq maka otu onye nkuzi (1:40), mana xfqdx xlqakwxkwq na-enwe ihe kar[r[ xmxakwxkwq iri ise n’otu klaas[. Harmer (1991) kqwara na xmxakwxkwq ruru iri anq ekwesigh[ [nq n’otu klaas[ niihi na xmxakwxkwq buru ibu na klaas[ agagh[ enwe ohere isonye nke qma n’ihe omume d[ iche iche e kwesiri inwe na nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx. Klaas[ buru ibu na-eme ka onye nkuzi na-akuziri xmxakwxkwq naan[ etu e si ede edemede n’enyegh[ ha ohere ide ya ede. Ihe kpatara nke a bx na [maak[ edemede anagh[ ad[ mfe. Imaatx, onye nkuzi qbxla na-amaak[ edemede ga na-ele anya n’qkpxrxkpx ihe anq nd[ a: nd[na, nhazi, nkqwa na ndezi. Edemede qbxla d[ mma ga na-arxtx aka n’isiokwu a na-ede maka ya. Nhazi ya ga-akwxkwa ch[m n’xd[ na echiche qhxrx ga-amalite na nkeji edemede qhxrx. Odee ga-agbakwa mbq iji atxmatxokwu d[ iche iche zipxta echiche ya n’xzq doro anya ma tinyekwa akaraedide n’ebe ha dabara. Edemede bx nka omume nke xmxakwxkwq kwesiri [d[ na-eme qtxtx ihe omume na ya. Q bx ya ka Onye Isi ule WAEC (2008) jiri txq aro wee s[ na q d[  mkpa na nd[ nkuzi ga na-enye xmxakwxkwq qtxtx nnwale n’edemede iji belata ka ha si ada asxsx Igbo n’ule SSCE.

    Qzq kwa, olund[ bx ihe qzq nwere ike [bx nsogbu nye qmxmx edemede n’asxsx Igbo. Olund[ bx olu d[ iche iche e ji asx otu asxsx. Ikekonwu, Ezikeojiaku, Ubani na Ugoji (1999) kqwara na asxsx qbxla nwere olu d[ iche iche e ji asx ya. Etu agbxrx qbxla siri nwee mba d[ iche iche mejupxtara ya bx ka mba nd[ a siri nwee olu ha ji asx asxsx agbxrx ha ahx. Kaosila d[, Ikekonwu na nd[ otu ya (1999) mere ka a mata na  asxsx xfqdx d[ka asxsx Igbo nwere xbara olund[ kar[a ibe ha. Qtxtx olund[ a na-emetxta xmxakwxkwq n’qmxmx asxsx Igbo txmad[ n’edemede. Nke a kpatara Onye Isi ule WAEC (2008; 2009; 2010) jiri kwuo na xfqdx xmxakwxkwq na-eji olund[ ha ede ihe n’ule. Niihi nke a, o kwesiri ka e nwee qtxtx ihe odide na klaas[ bx ebe onye nkuzi ga-enwe ohere [gbaziri xmxakwxkwq nd[iche d[gas[ n’olund[ na Igbo Izugbe.

 N’[ga n’ihu, ihe gbasara agwa nd[ Igbo na-akpaso asxsx ha bx ihe qzq a ga-eleba anya ebe a. Nwadike (2008) na Ohiri-Aniche (2008) mere ka a mata na nd[ Igbo ejighi asxsx ha kpqrq ihe ma ncha. Q bx qnqdx a ka Nwadike (2002) jiri kwuo hoohaa na onye qbxla ledara asxsx epum ya anya maqbx tufuo ya atxfuola njirimara, omenaala na ebemgbadoxkwx ya; onye ahx bxkwa onye e meriri emeri n’ime mmxq. Qtxtx nd[ nne na nna bx xmx afq Igbo anagh[ asxrx xmx ha asxsx Igbo nke ha ji ekwe ka xmxaka ha sxq Igbo. Onye nchqcha d[ka onye kuzirila nkuzi n’xlqakwxkwq sekqnd[r[ chqpxtara na xfqdx xlqakwxkwq d[ n’ala Igbo, txmad[ nd[ abxgh[ gqvxment[ nwe na-ata xmxakwxkwq ha ahxhx maqbx rie ha nha ma ha sxq asxsx Igbo na klaas[. Omume d[ etu a na-eme ka mmxq xmxakwxkwq na-ajx oyi n’ebe qmxmx asxsx Igbo d[. Q na-emekwuaz[ ka nd[ nkuzi Igbo na-ahxta onwe ha d[ka nd[ qrx ha ad[gh[ mkpa. Nke a nwere ike ime ka ha ghara [d[ na-agba mbq [chq ihe ha ga-eme ka nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx Igbo na-eto eto d[ka nd[ nkuzi asxsx Bekee na-eme. 

    Kaosila d[,Nwadike (2008) kqwara na ihe butere nleda anya  a a na-eleda asxsx ala Naijir[a, txmad[ asxsx Igbo bx qnqdx d[ elu e nyere asxsx Bekee d[ka asxsx nzikqr[ta ozi izugbe, asxsx nkuzi, asxsx azxmaah[a nakwa asxsx qch[ch[. Nke ka nke bx na tupu mmadx enweta ikike [gx akwxkwq n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu n’ala Naijir[a, na onye ahx ga-enwetar[r[ akara kredit n’asxsx Bekee. Q bx ya ka xfqdx ji eche na ihe bx mmxta akwxkwq bx [sx okpotokpo Bekee, ma na-echekwa na [sx Igbo bx ila oge n’iyi ma na-egosikwa amagh[ akwxkwq (Nwadike, 1993).  Qkwa d[ elu a e nyere asxsx Bekee kpatara e ji enye ya oge kar[a asxsx Igbo na nkegba ihe qmxmx n’xlqakwxkwq sekqnd[r[. Imaatx, ebe asxsx Igbo na-enwe nkeji iri anq na ise ugboro atq n’izuxka maka [mx ihe niile gbasatara omenaala, agxmagx na xtqasxsx, Bekee na-enwe nkeji iri anq na ise ugboro ise n’izuxka. Agxmagx n’asxsx Bekee na-enwekwa oge nke ya iche. Obayi (2007) mekwara ka a mata na qtxtx xlqakwxkwx sekqnd[r[ nd[ abxgh[ gqvxment[ nwe anagh[ etinye asxsx Igbo na nkegba ihe qmxmx ta[m tebul ha. Ebe asxsx Igbo ad[gh[ na ta[m tebul, q baz[r[ uru [jxwa ma a na-akuzi Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq d[ etu a ncha ncha ma ya fqdxzia ikuzi edemede.

    Ihe nd[ a niile a rxtxrx aka n’elu ebe a na-egosi na q bxrx na a chqrq inwe mgbanwe n’ebe nkuzi na qmxmx edemede d[, a ga-ebu xzq nwee mgbanwe n’ihe nd[ na-emegas[ na klaas[ txmad[ d[ka o siri gbasata usoro nkuzi. Iji usoro nkuzi d[ mma akuzi edemede ga-eme ka xmxakwxkwq nwee mkpalite ma nwekwaa agamniihu n’qmxmx edemede n’agbanyagh[ nsogbu nd[ a a gxpxtagas[r[. Q bx eziokwu na qtxtx nd[ qkachamara kwenyere na o nwegh[ usoro nkuzi a ga-as[ na q bx qka ibe n’usoro nkuzi niile, ha kwenyekwara na o nwere nd[ ka ibe ha ad[ ire na nkuzi nka xfqdx. Nke a mere o jiri d[ mkpa na onye nkuzi ga-ama usoro d[ iche iche q ga-eji na-akuzi ihe. N’agbanyegh[ nke a,Nwadike (1993) mere ka a mata na q bx naan[ usoro qd[naala/lekchq ka nd[ nkuzi asxsx Igbo na-ejikar[ akuzi ihe.

 Usoro nkuzi lekchq bx usoro nkuzi hiwere isi n’onye nkuzi iji okwu qnx na nzx odee akuzi ihe. D[ka Dienye na Gbamanja (1990) siri kqwaa, n’usoro nkuzi  lekchq, onye nkuzi na-eji okwu qnx na ide ihe n’xgbqojii akuziri xmxakwxkwq isiokwu ha kwesiri [mx. N’iji usoro a kuzie edemede, onye nkuzi ga-edepxta isiokwu edemede q chqrq ikuzi, kqwaa ihe nd[ d[ mkpa n’xd[ edemede ahx ma gwaz[a xmxakwxkwq ka ha bagide ide ya bx edemede.  Qrx xmxakwxkwq n’usoro nkuzi a bx ige nt[ na idetu ihe nd[ d[ mkpa. Nwadike (1993) kqwara na usoro nkuzi a anagh[ amas[cha xmxakwxkwq maka na q nagh[ ad[ ire. Okoye (1990) mere ka a mata na usoro nkuzi qbxla ad[gh[ ire na-eme ka mmxta xmxakwxkwq kxq afq n’ala ma sikwa etu a kutuo ihe mnweta n’ule ha. Ikekwa, q ga-abx maka ad[gh[ ire nke usoro nkuzi qd[naala/lekchq ka iwu na-ach[kwa mmxta n’ala Naijir[a (NPE, 2004) jiri depxta na nd[ nkuzi ga na-agbawanye mbq iji usoro nkuzi qgbara qhxrx d[ iche iche akuzi ihe n’ogo mmxta niile. Qtxtx nchqcha ka e merela (Omeje, 1998; Umo, 2001; Omeje, 2009), ka na-emekwa, maka iwebata xfqdx usoro nkuzi qgbara qhxrx na nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx Igbo. Otu usoro nkuzi qgbara qhxrx a na-ele anya nwere ike ikwalite nkuzi na qmxmx edemede bx usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx (task-based language teaching method, TBLTM).

 Usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx (TBLTM) pxtara n’ime afq 1970s oge nd[ qkachamara na nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx na-arx xka  na e kwesiri [d[ na-akuzi ma iwu xtqasxsx ma nghqta asxsx nwere. TBLTM sitere na nchqcha Prabbu mere na 1980s oge o jiri usoro nkuzi a kuziere xmxakwxkwq sekqnd[r[ ihe na mba India. Malite mgbe ahx, xfqdx nd[ nchqcha qzq lebawara anya n’iji TBLTM kuziere xmxakwxkwq asxsx nke abxq ha (L2), (Long na Crooks,1992; Ellis, 2003;Shehadeh, 2005). Mbunuche usoro nkuzi a bx imepxta qrx nzikqr[ta ozi d[ iche iche ma nye xmxakwxkwq ohere iji asxsx ha na-amx arx qrx nd[ a. Qrx a nwere ike [d[ n’xd[ ekwurunqqnx maqbx edereede. O nwekwara ike [bx ihe xmxakwxkwq ga-arx n’ótù n’ótù maqbx n’òtù n’òtù.  Qtxtx nd[ mmxta doro anya akqwaala qrx a n’xzq d[ iche iche. Nunan (2004)  kqwara qrx (task) d[ka ihe omume d[ na klaas[, nke na-enye xmxakwxkwq ohere [ghqta ma jiri asxsx kpar[ta xka, n’ebugh[ xzq tinye uche ha n’iwu xtqasxsx kama na nghqta qrx ha nwere. Willis (1996) n’echiche nke ya hxtara qrx d[ka ihe omume nke nd[ na-amx asxsx na-eji asxsx ahx ha na-amx eme n’xd[ igbo nsogbu (problem solving activities). N’ebe Widdowson (1990) nq, a ga-akpachapx anya wee hqta qrx a iji mee ka xmxakwxkwq rxq ya n’xd[ iji ya gboo mkpa. Nke a na-ezipxta na qrx a bx ihe onye nkuzi ga-anq ala chee echiche wee wepxta. Q bx ya ka Nabi-Olla (2012) jiri s[ na onye nkuzi qbxla chqrq iji usoro nkuzi a kuzie ihe ga-abx onye nwere nka [ch[kqba ma hazie qrx nd[ a n’xzq d[ ire. Ihe nke a pxtara bx na onye nkuzi ga-ebu n’uche ogo mmxta na xd[ xbxrx xmxakwxkwq ya nwere, iji mata xd[ qrx q ga-enye ha. Q gagh[ abx qrx siri ike maqbx d[ mfe kar[a.

    Usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx hiwere isi n’atxtx nkuzi kqnstrqktivist (constructivist approach). Atxtx nkuzi a d[ka Nworgu (1996) si kqwaa ya, bx usoro nkuzi na-enye umuakwxkwq ohere iji mmxta qhxrx ha hazighar[a mmxta ochie ha site n’[bagide qrx. Xd[ usoro nkuzi a na-eme ka xmxakwxkwq sonyesie ike n’ihe qmxmx na klaas[. Q na-eme ka nkuzi na qmxmx lekwas[ anya n’ebe nwataakwxkwq nq kar[a n’ebe onye nkuzi nq. TBLTM na-emekwa ka xmxakwxkwq na-arxkq qrx qnx n’xd[ inyeritara onwe ha aka. Qrx onye nkuzi n’xd[ usoro nkuzi a bx [nq d[ka onye enyemaaka maqbx onye mgbazi.

N’inyocha ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta ihe mnweta n’ule nke xmxakwxkwq n’edemede Igbo, q d[kwuaz[ mkpa na a ga-eleba anya na mmetxta nke jenda na ebe xlqakwxkwq d[; tinyekwara mmetxta mmekqr[ta usoro nkuzi, jenda na ebe xlqakwwxkwq d[ nwere n’ebe ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq d[. Jenda d[ka Nnachi (2010) si hxta ya bx qnqdx na-akqwa akparamaagwa a txrx anya n’aka mmadx nke hiwere isi n’[bx nwoke maqbx nwaany[. Mba d[ iche iche d[ n’xwa nwere omume ha na-atx anya ya n’aka nd[ bx nwoke maqbx nwaany[. Qnqdx a d[kwuaz[ ire n’ebe asxsx d[ maka na asxsx so n’omume mmadx na-eme. Nchqpxta nd[ nchqcha d[ iche iche mere na-egosi na e nwebegh[ nkwekqr[ta ma jenda  o nwere mmetxta pxtara ihe n’ebe qmxmx asxsx d[. Xfqdx nd[ nchqcha d[ka (Offorma, 1990; Omeje, 1998; Umo, 2001) gosipxtara na xmxnwaany[ ka eme nke qma n’qmxmx asxsx, ebe nd[ qzq d[ka (Okpara, 2003; Anizoba, 2004; Uzoegwu, 2004) na-arx xka na xmxnwoke ka eme nke qma. N’aka nke qzq, (Akabogu, 2002; Oluikpe, 2004; Agada, 2008) na nchqcha nke ha chqpxtara na enwegh[ ezigbo nd[iche d[ n’ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq nd[ nwoke na nd[ nwaany[ n’ebe qmxmx asxsx d[. Niihi enwegh[ nkwekqr[ta a ka nchqcha a jiri chqq ileba anya na mmetxta nke jenda n’qmxmx edemede n’asxsx Igbo.

E wezuga jenda, mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlqakwxkwq bx ihe qzq nwere ike imetxta ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq. Uzoegwu (2004) kqwara na ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ nwere mkpebi nye qtxtx ihe d[ mkpa na nkuzi na qmxmx d[ka ngwa nkuzi, akqrqngwa, qnxqgx nd[ nkuzi, ka klaas[ ha, na qtxtx ihe nd[ qzq. Ka ihe nd[ a siri d[ n’uju maqbx kqq xkq n’xlqakwxkwq nwere ike [kwalite maqbx kxtuo mmxta. N’otu aka ahx kwa, o nwekwara ike imetxta ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq ma e jiri usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx kuziere ha edemede Igbo. Ya mere o jiri d[ mkpa ileba anya na mmetxta nke mpaghara ebe xlqakwxkwq nwere n’qrx a. Niihi ihe niile nd[ a a kqwarala ka nchqcha a jiri chqq [mata ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.

Nsogbu Nchqcha

Asxsx Igbo, Hausa na Yoruba bx asxsx atq gqvxment[ etiti ala Naijir[a wepxtara ka a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq maka [kwalite ezi mmekqr[ta na [d[ n’otu agbxrx d[ iche iche e nwere n’obodo a. Iji asxsx kwalite [d[ n’otu na ezi mmekqr[ta mmadx na ibe ya na-ad[ ire mgbe e nwere ike iji asxsx kpar[taxka n’xd[ ekwurunqqnx maqbx edereede.   Nke a mere e ji akuzi asxsx Igbo na ogbo ya nd[ qzq n’xlqakwxkwq n’ogo mmxta d[ iche iche, maka na imejupxta mbunuche nd[ ahx gqvxmqnet[ nwere hiwere isi na mmxta xmxakwxkwq na-enwe n’asxsx nd[ ahx.

    Ma d[ka o si gbasata nkuzi na qmxmx asxsx Igbo, q kachas[ edemede Igbo, xmxakwxkwq na-enwe ihe mh[aahx. Qtxtx nsogbu ka a na-arx aka butere ihe mh[aahx nd[ ahx d[ka e gosirila na ntqala nchqcha a.  Nsogbu nd[ ahx, nke ejigh[ usoro nkuzi dabara akuzi edemede bx otu n’ime ha ka a na-eche so eme na xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ anagh[ emecha nke qma n’edemede Igbo. Onyeisi ule ‘WAEC’ (2008; 2009 na 2010) gbara akaebe na xmxakwxkwq na-eri mperi n’edemede Igbo niihi na xfqdx anagh[ edezu ogo a chqrq, xfqdx anagh[ etinye akaraedemede etu o kwesiri ebe xfqdx anagh[ eji qtqgrqf[ Igbo Izugbe ede edemede ha. Q bxgh[ naan[ nke a, onye nchqcha d[ka onye kuzirila asxsx Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’oge gara aga chqpxtakwara na q nagh[ ad[r[ xmxakwxkwq mfe [kqwa ihe ha bu n’uche n’xd[ edereede.

Niihi mperi a xmxakwxkwq na-eri n’edemede n’asxsx Igbo n’ule ‘WASC’ ka o ji d[ mkpa [chqta usoro nkuzi a ga-eji na-akuzi edemede Igbo n’ogo siniq sekqnd[r[ iji kwalite mmxta na ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq. Q bx nke a mere nchqcha a ji chqq ileba anya na mmetxta usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx n’ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.   

Mbunuche Nchqcha

Mbunuche nchqcha a nke izugbe bx [chqpxta ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo. Nchqcha a ga-elebakwa anya n’ihe nd[ a:

1.   [chqpxta ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo;

2.   ileba anya ka jenda si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ ma a kuziere ha edemede Igbo;

3.   [chqpxta ma mpaghara ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ e nwere mmetxta n’ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo;

4.   [mata ka mmekqr[ta usoro nkuzi na jenda si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.

5.   [chqpxta ka mmekqr[ta usoro nkuzi na mpaghara ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.

Uru Nchqcha

Nd[ nchqcha a ga-abara uru gxnyere xmxakwxkwq, nd[ nkuzi, nd[ nhazi kqr[kulum, nd[ na-ede akwxkwq qgxgx na nd[ nchqcha. Otu ihe d[ nnukwu mkpa na nkuzi na qmxmx bx usoro nkuzi. Q d[ mkpa na nd[ nkuzi Igbo ga na-eji usoro nkuzi ga na-amas[ xmxakwxkwq wee na-akuzi ihe. Niihi nke a, a txrx anya na nchqpxta nchqcha a ga-egosi ad[miire usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx maka ikuziri xmxakwxkwq edemede Igbo. Q bxrx na nd[ nkuzi Igbo ejiri usoro nkuzi a na-akuzi ihe, q ga-eme ka xmxakwxkwq sonyesie ike na nkuzi na qmxmx. Nke a ga-akwalite mmxta, ma mekwaa ka ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq n’edemede Igbo d[ elu.

    N’aka nke qzq, ebe a txrx anya na usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx ga-ad[ ire maka ikuzi edemede Igbo, q bxrx na e si n’qgbakq nkuzi ihe na ihe qmxmx kuziere nd[ nkuzi asxsx Igbo usoro nkuzi a, ha iji ya kuzie ihe ga-eme ka xmxakwxkwq na-esonyesiike na klaas[. Nd[ nkuzi ga-esi etu a kwalite ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq ma nwekwaa afq ojuju n’qrx ha.

    Nchqpxta nchqcha a ga-enyere nd[ nhazi kqr[kulum aka [mata  mkpa q d[ bx iwebata usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx maka ikuzi edemede Igbo. Q ga-emekwa ka ha lebaa anya [mata ihe qmxmx nd[ qzq usoro nkuzi a ga-ad[ mma na ya. Nke a ga-ad[ ire ma q bxrx na nd[ mmxta d[ n’aka emee ka nd[ nhazi kqr[kulum mata uru d[ n’usoro nkuzi a.

A txkwara anya na nchqpxta nchqcha a ga-enye nd[ na-ede akwxkwq qgxgx ohere [tulekqr[ta ad[miire usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx na nke lekchq, bx nke ha na-agbasokar[ ede akwxkwq ha. Nke a ga-enyere ha aka [mata ma q d[ mkpa [webata usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx oge ha na-ahazi akwxkwq ha maka mbighar[ (subsequent edition).

N’ikpeazx, ebe q bx na e nwebegh[ nkwekqr[ta gbasara qnqdx jenda na mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlqakwxkwq n’ebe qmxmx asxsx d[, nchqcha a ga-akwado maqbx gbaghaa nchqpxta nd[ nchqcha nd[ qzq merela gbasatara mmetxta nke jenda na ebe xlqakwxkwq d[ n’qmxmx asxsx. N’xzq d[ etu a ka nchqcha a ga-esi txnye oke ya n’uto nke nchqcha k’edukeshqn n’ala Naijir[a.

Oke Nchqcha

    Ebe e mere nchqcha a bx n’Okpuru Qch[ch[ Nsxka d[ na Steeti Enugwu. Onye nchqcha kpebiri [nq ebe a mee nchqcha a niihi na q na-anx ya qkx n’obi [chqpxta xzq a ga-esi kwalite ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq nd[ nq na Nsxka n’ebe qmxmx asxsx Igbo d[. Nd[ e jiri mee nchqcha a bx xmxakwxkwq nq na klaas[ siniq sekqnd[r[ nke abxq. N’agbanyeghi na a na-akuzi edemede n’ogo sekqnd[r[ niile, onye nchqcha hqqrq siniq sekqnd[r[ nke abxq maka na q bx ha nqz[ nso n’isi njedebe siniq sekqnd[r[ bx ebe a na-ele ule ‘SSCE’. Niihi nke a, q d[ mkpa na a kwadoro xmxakwxkwq a nke qma tupu ha abaa na siniq sekqnd[r[ nke atq bx ebe ha ga-ele ya bx ule.

Nchqcha a jedebekwara n’[chqpxta ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta n’ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’edemede Igbo. Ebe qzq nchqcha a lebara anya bx na mmetxta nke jenda na mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlqakwxkwq n’ihe mnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq ma e jiri usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx kuziere ha edemede Igbo.

Ajxjx Nchqcha

    Iji hx na nchqcha a m[tara mkpxrx a txrx anya n’aka ya, ajxjx duziri ya bx nd[ a:

1.   Kedu ka usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo?

2.   Olee etu jenda si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo?

3.   Kedu ka mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlq akwxkwq si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo?

4.   Kedu ka mmekqr[ta mmetxta usoro nkuzi na jenda si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo?

5.   Olee ka mmekqr[ta usoro nkuzi na mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlqakwxkwq si emetxta ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo?

Xmaokwu

E wubere xmaokwu nd[ a ka ha bxrx ihe mgbaziri nye qrx a. Nke qbxla n’ime ha ka a nwalere n’ogo akara mpxtara nd[miiche 0.05.

H01 : Enwegh[ ezigbo nd[miiche n’akara miin ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq nd[ e jiri usoro nkuzi mgbado xkwx n’qrx (TBLT) na nd[ e jiri usoro nkuzi qd[naala (lekchq) kuziere edemede Igbo.

H02 : E nwegh[ ezigbo nd[miiche n’akara miin ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq nd[ nwoke na nd[ nwaany[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.

H03 : E nwegh[ ezigbo nd[miiche n’akara miin ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq nd[ nq n’ime obodo na nd[ nq n’obodo mepere emepe n’qmxmx edemede Igbo.

H04E nwegh[ ezigbo mmekqr[ta mmetxta d[ n’etiti usoro nkuzi na jenda n’ebe ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq d[, ma a kuziere ha edemede Igbo.

H05: E nwegh[ ezigbo mmekqr[ta mmetxta d[ n’etiti usoro nkuzi na mpaghara ebe a rxnyere xlqakwxkwq n’ebe ihe nnweta n’ule xmxakwxkwq siniq sekqnd[r[ n’qmxmx edemede Igbo d[.

 


MMETXTA USORO NKUZI MGBADO XKWX N’QRX N’IHE NNWETA N’ULE XMXAKWXKWQ SINIQ SEKQNDIRI N’QMXMX EDEMEDE IGBO N’OKPURU QCHICHI NSXKA NA STEETI ENUGWU


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All Project Materials Inc. (2020). MMETXTA USORO NKUZI MGBADO XKWX N’QRX N’IHE NNWETA N’ULE XMXAKWXKWQ SINIQ SEKQNDIRI N’QMXMX EDEMEDE IGBO N’OKPURU QCHICHI NSXKA NA STEETI ENUGWU. Available at: https://allprojectmaterials.com/department/paper-8837.html. [Accessed: ].

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