Background of the Study
language has become one of the most important Languages in the world. It is
widely used in all areas of human endeavour, nationally and internationally.
The global use of English Language is found in television programmes and in the
internet. There are more websites made in English than in other language.
Realizing the importance of English, many people have taken it as a second
Language. Since English speaking countries are very important part of global
economy and its advancement, other political and country leaders must either
learn English or find someone who understands English to interpret for them.
Therefore, politics is one arena where English is important. The English
Language according to Obanya, (1982) fills a huge communication gap. It helps
to facilitate contact between Nigerians of diverse Language groups. The English
language is the first Language on the school curriculum; hence it is regarded
as a core subject. A credit in the English Language is considered compulsory
for the award of many of the country’s certificates. According to Ahmed (1999)
the English Language is an indispensable Language of communication in Nigeria
at both personal, national and international levels.
However, the teaching of English Language is associated with a
lot of problems.
It takes a long time to learn a new grammar system and thousands
of new words. It also takes a lot of practice to develop listening,
speaking, reading and writing skills in a new Language. English Language is
taught everyday in schools time table and students’ performances at the
examinations are still not satisfactory, Ahmed (1999).
The National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004), in Nigeria
emphasizes that children should be properly taught. The policy is also of the
opinion that teaching and learning in Nigeria should lead to students’
acquisition of skills and competencies geared towards solving their problems
and that of the society.
The situation of general poor performance in English Language
spreads through all levels of Nigeria’s educational ladder including primary,
secondary and post-primary institutions (Keston 1999). In the view of Osunde
and Ogiegbaen in the West African Examination Council Chief Examiner’s Report
(2005), student’s poor performance in English Language is a long standing one.
Annual reports from the West African Examination Councils (WAEC) (2005) reveal
woeful performances from students who have made enrolment for the English
Language examination a yearly ritual. It is worrisome to note that the
performance of these students have continued to deteriorate year after year in
English Language despite all stake holder’s effort. The West African
Examination Councils (WAEC) reports reveal that most candidates who take the
Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) lack foundation in
English grammar and usage. This implies that they are not well taught by their
The situation is pathetic, as a lot of factors may be
responsible for the poor performance in the English Language examinations. One
of these factors is the traditional content /knowledge oriented curriculum,
which is still very much practised today. Teachers seem to have clung fast to
the old fashioned ways and have refused to embrace the new trend of the total
curriculum experience of the modern teacher. A modern teacher is a teacher who
has seen the need to incorporate computer assisted language
learning material in teaching and learning process. Onwuka, (1988) had
criticizes the content /knowledge –oriented curriculum like the one practiced
by the teachers of the English Language. Such curriculum does not go beyond
merely imparting knowledge to the students. Teachers have to go by the new technology,
that is the use of computer in teaching and learning for a better performance.
A computer is an electronic device that accepts and stores input
data and process the data and produces outputs as a result of step by step set
instructions. Woherem,(2004) asserts that computers are marked by accuracy of
results, speed in operation and versatility in operations; it has found
application in all areas of life. However, the slow pace of both computer
acquisition and literacy is having profound negative effect in secondary
schools and other organizations. According to Anigbogu (2002), the word
computer is a house hold name in modern technology in the developed countries
in the world, but in Nigeria, the technology is still sounding strange to many
people. According to Mccormick (1993) computers can be used to
diversify, develop and improve the pedagogical relation of teaching and
learning. The computer is a technological innovation under the control of
stored programme that can perform some of the intellectual role of man even
beyond man capability, (Bada et al 2009). Reith (1993) defines computer as an
electronic device which stores information on disc or magnetic tape;
analyses it and produces information as required from the data on the
tape. Adekomi (2001) defines computer as a combination of related devices
capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing described
operations on a data, and supplying the results of these operations.
Computers, irrespective of type and size have five basic parts
namely, input unit, memory units, Control Units (CU) Arithmetic and Logic Units
(ALU) and output units. Both ALU and CU are joined into one piece
of hardware known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which is the brain of
the computer. According to Adekomi (2001), the primary functions of computers
are inputting and storing information, processing information and outputting
information. Innovations appearing today indicate that the world is dependent
on computer technology (Ajibade, 2006) computer is a great learning tool for
both young and old. According to Baugher (1999). In Language, a computer can
present words to be spelt, sound to be made, instructions to be
Computer can be used to evaluate students’ performance and
direct students backward, forward, and sideways for appropriate learning
activities, (Bada, 2009). Other potentials of computer in instruction
identified by Abimbade (1997) are as follow:
Computer helps students to learn at their own pace.
It produces significant time saving over conventional classroom
It allows student’s control over the rate and sequence of
It gives appropriate feedback.
It promotes individualized instructions.
It provides a more positive affective climate especially for
It provides appropriate record-keeping and thereby monitors
It gives more information to teachers.
It motivates students.
The success of the integration of computer into the teaching and
learning of English Language depends mostly on the level of
awareness by the teachers and the actual utilization of computer in the
classroom. The use of computer in teaching and learning is important.
Therefore, the awareness and usage of computer by teachers of English Language
right from secondary school become necessary, (Fakeye 2010).
Most researches by experts reveal lack of computers for use in
schools. English Language being a core subject, will need adequate
availability of computers for all teachers and students, hence the awareness of
computer usage to teachers and its availability is very important. Several
strategies have been proposed and adopted over the years which have helped in
one way or the other but have not led to improved performances of
students in English Language. (Fakeye, 2010) went further to report that
the availability of computer and its connectivity to the internet tend to
non-existence in virtually all the schools. The level of use of computer for
teaching depends on the availability of computer. Anigbogu (2003 opines that
not being aware of what computer can do limits teacher’s ability to
desire the use of computers even when they have serious problems beyond the
competence of conventional technologies. Bluhim (1987) opines that educational
administrators were scarcely aware of the use of the technology as a tool
for decision-making. Training is needed if the potential impact of ICT in
educational organizations is to be realized.
Therefore, the benefits of computer can only be enjoyed by a
computer literate population, that is, teachers, students and the public. In a
bid to achieve this, the federal government made computer education one of the
subjects to be offered in both junior and senior secondary schools (Federal
Republic of Nigeria, 1998). Moreover, in May 2000, the minister of science and
technology introduced Fit it -yourself (FIY) computer assembly kits to be used
in both secondary schools and tertiary institutions (Ayeoyenikan, 2000). Since
its introduction, there have been relatively few studies on
the level of teacher awareness and extent of utilization of teachers and
Computer awareness refers to the ways in which computers may
have an impact on education. Computer awareness programmes familiarizes the
students/ teachers with computer technology and the basic principles on which
computer works including some elementary basic programming (Yusuf, 1998a).
There is need to examine teachers’ awareness of the extent of utilization
of computer such as in instructional delivery process (e.g the use of computer
–assistant language learning). In modernized world, almost every aspect
of people’s life is affected in some ways by computer. The development of
Information Technology (IT) has spread through the application of computers in
learning process, which is generally known as Computer Assisted
Learning (CAL). A computer is used for the sake of facilitating
people in learning, such as learning language. Computer is only a tool and a
medium. Hence, its ability to perform is dependent on the users. In this case,
the computer is an intermediary, it is merely a part of the entire learning
process, (Hartoyo, 2008). Presently, many articles have been written about the
role of computer in English learning. Yet not many schools make use of
computers for some reasons, it is obvious that Nigeria / Nsukka Education Zone
have entered a new information age and there should be a link between computer
and English language learning.
Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an approach
to Language teaching and learning in which computer technology is
used as an aid for presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be
learned, usually including substantial interactive elements.
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) studies the role and
the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in second language
learning and teaching. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programme
presents a stimulus to which the learner must respond. The stimulus may be
presented in any combination of text, still lineages, sound and motion video.
The learner responds by typing at the keyboard, pointing and
clicking with the mouse, or speaking into a microphone. The computer offers a
feedback, indicating whether the learner’s response is right or wrong, and in
the more sophisticated call programme, attempting to analyze the learner’s
response and to pinpoint errors.
There is no objection that computer Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) has come of age because computers have been a feature of teaching and
learning of English Language as a second Language (ESL) since the 1960’s in a
higher education and since the early 1980’s in secondary education. The rapid
growth in the use of ICT in ESL in the 1980s led to the foundation of the two
leading professional associations; CALICO (USA) in 1982 and EUROCALL (Europe)
in 1986, both of which continue to thrive and now forms part of the world CALL
umbrella association. Early CALL favoured an approach that drew heavily on
practices associated with programmed instruction. This was reflected in the
term computer Assisted language Instruction (CALI), which originated in the USA
and was in common use until the early 1980s when CALL became the dominant term.
Throughout the 1980s CALL widened its scope, embracing the communicative
approach and a range of a new technologies, especially multimedia and
communication technology. Source: htpp://wwwi.atefl/.org.p1/call/j soft27.htm.
Retrieved January 10th, 2011). For many years, foreign language
teachers have used the computer to provide supplementary exercise. In recent
years, advances in computer technology have motivated teachers to reassess the
computer and consider it a valuable part of daily foreign language learning.
Interactivity is a crucial strength of the new technology. The computer is
interactive by virtue of the fact that the user can gain control over learning
and therefore becomes an active participant in learning process. Interactivity
also allows the instant feedback from the computer. The interactivity of
computer makes it especially suited for implementing learner- centred teaching
method. Warschauer (1998) asserts that computer makes any information needed
widely and easily available irrespective of distance, computer is indeed a
motivator to teaching and learning. However, this current study is interested
in finding out the extent of availability and utilization of computer Assisted
Language Learning (CALL) by English teachers in secondary schools in
Nsukka Education Zone.
The use of computer is predicted to the motive intentions to use
them. These motive intentions will be influence by the beliefs of the users
about the usefulness and ease of use. (Ajzen, 1988). According to (Davis, 1989)
asserts that teachers behaviour use or reject computer is determined by his
intention to perform such behaviour i.e negative or positive subjective norms.
This implies perceived social pressures from parents, educational reforms, and
students. The presence of motivated teachers having a positive attitude towards
the consequences or outcomes of computer use, results in a higher rate of
To improve professionally does not only motivate but helps
teachers to keep up to date with new and effective practice
in teaching and learning process. Spark (1990) is of the opinion that the
conventional teaching techniques often conflict with the new instructional
strategies introduced in any educational system. Ajzen (1988)
opines that those with positive attitude towards the use of computer in
education behave differently from colleagues with a less positive attitude. The
information age is advancing rapidly and teachers will have to
prepare and equip themselves with relevant knowledge and skills in the information
technology related area i.e the use of computer in the teaching and learning of
the English language.
However, there are teachers who are still using the traditional
method of teaching which is basically teacher centered. Students are passive listeners
while the teachers actively do the talking alone in traditional method. The
learners are undoubtedly cheated because they are expected to be involved in
the teaching and learning process which is lacking in the traditional teaching
The student, who actually wants to learn English language, needs
to take charge of his/her own language learning instead of just passively
listening to the teacher. The student must be able to carry out a plan for
developing the language skills whether the teacher is there or not. This can be
done more effectively through the use of computer which assists
learning with ease. In the digital era, the development in various
aspects of computer technology has gone beyond imagination and expectation.
Computer has a lot of application in the field of education; it is useful in
the teaching and learning processes. Computer literacy is very much needed for
teachers as well as learners. Computer improves both teaching and
students’ valuable connections with teachers, other schools and a wide
network of professionals around the globe . Creating computer
awareness for teachers is essential. The availability and utilization of
computers in schools is another important factor to consider if there must be
any meaningful benefit in the use of computer to teach.
Gender influence is also of importance in research on computer
assisted language learning (CALL). This is because gender differences, with
lower female participation, are widely documented for both science and technology
and computer assisted language learning (Markert, nd., Haynie 1999, Davis, Ng.,
Nyhus, & Sullivan, nd, Rajagopal, 2003) in Mudasiru (2005). Computers are
usually linked with English and thus vast majority of teachers using computer
are likely to be male teachers. Teachers of other subjects who use the computer
as a learning tool are more likely to be men than women (Culley, 1988). Even as
early as age six or seven boys are likely to dominate over girls when mixed
sexes are working on computer, (Mudasiru, 2005). This is also reflected in
secondary schools and on computer degree courses (Kikpatrick & Cuban, 1998,
Siann & Durndell,1988).
The study is therefore designed to find out the extent of
availability and utilization of computer assisted language learning (CALL) by
English language teachers in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone.
Statement of the Problem
In this contemporary age where the society has gone
digital and computerized, it is surprising that teachers still use the
traditional method of teaching the English language in most secondary schools.
This method is the type that the teacher actively do the talking alone with the
chalkboard and the students passively listen whether learning is talking place
or not. There has been consistent decline in students’ performance in the
Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) and West African Examination
Councils (WAEC) probably because of the methods teachers use in the teaching of
the English language.
In this information age, computer has made a triumphant entry
into education in the past decade, it has brought significant benefits to
teachers and students alike. The search for an appropriate teaching of the
English language has been on for many years and computer has been proven very useful
in this regard.
The use of computer for better teaching remains impeccable. The
English language teachers are teaching everyday as stipulated on the school
time- table. At –times students are being engaged in Extra –Mural Classes, yet
the performance of students in the English language remains poor. The situation
in Nsukka which is a university town seems the same. There has been a world
–wide demand for a re-orientation of teaching and learning towards greater use
of ICT facilities. The successes of such demand, however, depends largely on
the level of awareness of computer use by English language teachers,
computer availability and its actual use in classroom instructions.
The problem of this study, therefore, is to find out how the
inclusion of computer assisted language learning materials could influence
positively the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools
in Nsukka Education Zone.
Purpose of the
The purpose of this study is to find out the extent of
availability and utilization of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by
English language teachers in Nsukka Education Zone. The study specifically
seeks to examine teacher’s awareness of the use of computer in
teaching the English language, the availability of computer for use
in teaching the English language, availability of teachers who are computer
literate, teachers’ competence in computer software.
Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized as many
researchers in the fields have made useful observations towards its impacts on
the fields of education and other human endeavour. Hung, (2007) asserts that
the use of computer has improved students’ writing skills, Shams (2006)
examined the use of computerized pronunciation practice as a tool in the
reduction of foreign language anxiety. The result showed that the
students who practised with computer did experience significant improvement in
the quality of their pronunciation. The diffusion and use of computer in
education is very important because it will lead to improvement in
teaching and learning process. In developing nations, ICTs have brought
a technological reduction whose utilizations and production have
been somewhat limited but whose potentials diffusion
hold a great promise in accelerating the performances of both the teachers and
students in our educational system. The internet and the rise of computer
–mediated communications in particular have reshaped the uses of computers for
language learning. With CALL, teachers are not the source of information any
more, but act as facilitators so that students can actively interpret and
organize information they are given, fitting it into prior knowledge (Dole, et
Besides the above theoretical significance of CALL provided by
experts, there is practical significance that this study will proffer. The
study seeks to spur the government to make effort in providing computers for
use in schools for teaching and learning. The government will also see the need
to training teachers to be computer literate. Moreover, the outcome of
this study will sensitize both teachers and students to make use of
computers for better academic performance.
Scope of the study
The study is concerned with the extent of availability and
utilization of computer assisted language learning (CALL) by English language
teachers. The study is limited in terms of geographical scope to state
secondary schools in Nsukka Education zone. The content scope focuses on the
extent of teachers awareness of use of computers in teaching the English
language, the availability of computer for use, availability of teachers who
are computer literate, teachers competence in computer software.
The following research questions directed this study
1. What is
the extent of awareness of teachers on the use of computer in teaching English
as a second languages?
2. To what
extent are computers available for use in the teaching of the English language?
3. To what
extent are teachers who are computer literate available?
competent are English language teachers in computer software for teaching?
will be no significant gender difference in the mean responses of teachers
in their awareness of the use of computers in teaching the English language
will be no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers who use
computer in teaching the English language and those who do not use computer on
the level of computer literacy skills.