This study was carried out to investigate the effects of teacher
made models and students made models on the achievement and interest of senior
secondary school II (SSII) students in organic chemistry. The study also
investigated the effect of gender on academic achievement and interest of SS
(II) students in Organic Chemistry. Four research questions and four hypotheses
were formulated for the study. The researcher reviewed related literature. A
quasi-experimental design, specifically, the non-equivalent control group
design involving four intact classes were used. The population of the study
comprised 2960 Senior Secondary II (SSII) students in the forty-eight secondary
schools offering chemistry in Nsukka Zone. The sample for the study consisted
of 140 senior secondary II chemistry students from two co-educational schools
in Nsukka Local Government Area. A purposive random sampling technique was used
to select two co-educational schools that have two chemistry intact classes.
The classes were assigned to the two experimental groups, Teacher Made Model
(TMM) and Students Made Model (SMM) by balloting. The regular chemistry
teachers of the selected schools were trained and used for the study. The
instruments for data collection included the Organic Chemistry Achievement Test
(OCAT) and the Organic Chemistry Interest Inventory (OCII). The “OCAT” with a
reliability Coefficient of 0.97 and the “OCII” of 0.77 were developed by the
researcher and validated by two experts in Measurement and Evaluation and one
in Education Chemistry. The data collected were analysed using mean and
standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The major findings of
the study include the following: The use of models had a significant
effect on academic achievement and interest of students in organic
chemistry; the students taught organic chemistry using students made
models performed significantly better than their counterparts taught with the
teacher-made models; students taught using students-made models showed greater
interest in organic chemistry than those taught using the teacher made models;
Gender has no significant effect on the achievement and interest of students in
Organic Chemistry; there was no significant interaction effect of model type
and gender on the students’ achievement and interest in Organic Chemistry. The
implications of these findings with respect to students, teachers, Ministry of
Education as well as tertiary institutions were presented. Based on these, it
was recommended that the application of students-made models for teaching
concepts in organic chemistry should be included in the school curriculum.
Background of the Study
of science and technology in the development of a nation is never in dispute.
According to Jegede (1983) the current development in science and technology
has greatly affected human beings and to be ignorant of these developments is
to live in an empty, meaningless and probably unreal life.
The technological development of any nation lies on its emphasis
on sciences especially chemistry. This is evidenced in the admission ratio of
60:40 of the science and science-related courses to the Arts and Humanities
into Nigerian Federal and State universities. In an effort to achieve national
developmental needs, the Federal Government of Nigeria made special provisions
and incentives through the provision of instructional materials, laboratory
equipments, training and retraining of teachers, provision of research grants
and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT). (Federal
Ministry of Education, 2008).
addition to these provisions, the Federal Government of Nigeria through the
Educational Tax Fund (ETF) intervention project supplied labless science
equipments and instructional materials to about six hundred and thirty-three
secondary schools all over the country in 2008 (Federal Ministry of Education,
2008). The aim was to reduce or eradicate the problems encountered by the
teachers as a result of the absence or dearth of laboratory equipments and
instructional materials in schools. However, inspite of these efforts by the
Federal Government, students performance is still very poor in the sciences
is the branch of science which deals with how substances are made up, how the
atoms of elements combine or break up and how atoms and compounds react under
different conditions. Pure chemistry is more concerned with academic
development of chemistry, extending the frontiers of chemical knowledge through
laboratory research, developing improved methods of imparting chemical
knowledge and experimenting on alternative methods of producing desired
results. A pure chemist is not interested in commercializing the results of his
experiments. Industrial or applied chemistry as the name implies translates the
laboratory findings of the pure chemist into commercial products. For example,
in the laboratory the pure chemist will boil a small quantity of oil and soda
to produce a small amount of soap. He is interested not in selling this
quantity but in studying its properties – the colour, the odour, the amount of
lather it can produce etc. The industrial chemist will make use of these
findings of the pure chemist but has to design ways and means of producing the
soap on a very large scale, and cheaply too.
Relationship between Chemistry and other Sciences
professions other than chemistry, problems concerning chemistry occur
repeatedly. The physician, for example, needs to be familiar with numerous
chemical reactions that govern human life, as well as to know how they can be
altered by chemical means. The engineer, whether he specializes in civil,
mechanical or electrical aspects of his profession, deals with materials. He
must know their properties and their behaviour under varying conditions. Eg.
Why does steel corrode, and under what conditions does it corrode least
rapidly? The agriculturist is faced with all these problems and more. Besides
the chemistry of life processes and the chemical behaviour of structural
materials, he needs to understand the complex chemical make-up of soils and its
influence on growing plants. In relation to other sciences, chemistry is one of
the cornerstones of such sciences as geology, biochemistry, pharmacy,
microbiology, zoology and botany. Without chemistry, how can one, for example,
unravel the mystery of photosynthesis, respiration and the structure of
chlorophyll, all encountered in the study of biology?
importance of chemistry is underscored by the fact that to obtain any applied
science degree in agriculture, pharmacy, medicine or engineering in any
university in the world, the candidate must have passed chemistry in the WASSCE
and UTME and must have studied chemistry to a certain level in the university.
This fact is important and should, therefore, be adequately noted. We have
often seen students who go through the secondary school either blindly or
without proper guidance as to the importance of chemistry. It is only when such
students wish to enter the university does it dawn on them that they should
have taken chemistry more seriously. The chemist is found in all facets of the
community and so job opportunities are quite high. A chemist is employed in
chemical industries such as breweries, cement factories, drug companies, food
industries, oil companies and in government establishments like institutions of
learning, ministries of defence, environment, education, agriculture,
technology and internal affairs.
chemistry which is an aspect of chemistry is a component of the chemistry
curriculum. The curriculum content which was prepared by the Comparative
Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) and presented to a national
critique workshop organized by the Federal Ministry of Education Science and
Technology (FMEST) in 1984 was aimed at satisfying the chemistry requirement of
the senior secondary school programme in the new National Policy on Education
(NPE 2004). The objectives of the chemistry curriculum are to:
a transition in the use of scientific concepts and techniques acquired in
Integrated science with chemistry;
the students with basic knowledge in chemical concepts and principles through
efficient selection of content and sequencing;
Chemistry in its inter-relationship with other subjects;
chemistry and its link with industry, everyday life, benefits and hazards;
a course which is complete for pupils not proceeding to higher education while
it is at the same time a reasonably adequate foundation for a post-secondary
chemistry course (NPE 2004).
The fundamental principles of chemistry
covered in this curriculum include: particulate nature of matter; periodicity,
chemical combination, quantitative aspects of chemical reaction; rates of
reaction; equilibrium, carbon chemistry and industrial application of
chemistry. It is recommended that the guided discovery approach resting on the
activity of the students be used in teaching. This instructional approach is
recommended to ensure that learners are provided with continuous experiences in
skills of defining problems, recognizing assumptions, critical thinking,
hypothesizing, observing, collecting and recording data, testing and evaluating
evidence, manipulating variables, generalizing and applying generalizations.
Assessment instruments should include multiple choice items, structured short
answer questions, essay questions and rating scales where
of students’ achievement in Senior Secondary Certificate (SSC) examination in
chemistry showed a pathetic trend of performance compared to other sciences
(see Appendix i). Many factors such as mathematical aspects of chemistry, poor
teaching methods, lack of instructional materials, lack of interest etc are
responsible for students’ poor performance in chemistry (Anaekwe, 1997; Njoku
1997 Ajah; 2004). The West African Examinations Council Chief Examiners (2008)
reported that candidates concentrated mainly on familiar questions that
demanded recall of facts and were unable to apply their knowledge of scientific
principles to answer other questions. Other areas of weakness according to the
Chief Examiners report include poor mathematical skills, inability to write
chemical formula correctly, poor spelling and poor understanding of the
structures and properties of organic compounds.
reported that the candidates answered organic chemistry questions poorly. Even
those who answered the questions failed to draw correct structures and give
correct International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names of the
organic compounds. The Chief Examiners recommended that the candidates could
perform better if instructional materials are used in teaching them. The
instructional materials are the ones whose production and usage are activity
oriented, pupil centred, interesting, intellectually stimulating and innovative
and are capable of creating interest and ultimately affecting learning behaviour
of students. Such materials include models, mock-ups, simulations e.t.c.
of models has been found to enhance achievement (Diovu, 2006) but there is no
evidence on which of the two types of model is more effective. It is therefore
pertinent to find out which of the model types that will improve students’
interest and achievement in organic chemistry, hence this study on effect of
teacher made models and students made models on students’ achievement and
interest in organic chemistry. Nachmias and Nachmias (1992) described a model
as a likeness of something, a representation of reality. In the context of this
work, a model is a three – dimensional instructional material which the teacher
can use in place of the real things which may be too heavy, too complex, too
expensive or too dangerous for teaching and learning.
made models within this context refer to the models that are made or produced
by the teacher and are used for teaching and learning. Conversely, the
students’ made models are the ones that are made or produced by the students
and are equally used for teaching and
is an activity that drives or motivates the individual for action (Eze, 2003).
According to Njoku (1997), interest in an activity or object can be sustained
depending on what the individual whose interest is engaged stand to gain or
lose by so doing. Hilard, Atkinson and Atkinson in Olikeze (1999:21) defined
interest as “a persisting tendency to pay attention and enjoy some activities;
or content is of interest if it is pleasing or engages one’s attention. The
researcher defines interest as a persistent zeal of wanting to know or learn
about something or object.
studies for example (Rusell, 1970; Burke, 1983; Chauhan, 1987; Agwu, 2004; Ede,
2005) show that interest plays a major role in any undertaking as it influences
devotion to duty, fairness, hard work, endurance discipline etc. Obioma and
Ohuche (1984) reported that students performed significantly better in those
areas they had interest in and performed poorly in area they lacked interest.
Research works have shown that there are differences in students’ interest by
gender in science (Bajah and Bozimo, 1989; Balogun, 1985; Chidolue, 1983; Ifeakor
2003; Nworgu, 1990; Olikeze, 1999). Bajah and Bozimo (1989) indicated that boys
show greater interest in sciences than girls. Chidolue (1983); Ifeakor (1999)
noted that girls show greater interest in sciences than boys while Balogun
(1985) and Eze (2003) indicated that Nigerian Secondary School Students have
low interest generally in sciences.
science educators have been worried about achievement of females in
science courses. The differences have been considered to pose problems in science
and technology. For barely two decades now, there have been researches into the
nature and origins of gender differences in achievement in sciences (Okoye,
2009). Oriaifo (1990) carried out one of such studies. The study examined the
pattern of performance among male and female students in science. The result
showed that there is a significant difference in the performance of boys and
girls in school science in favour of the boys. The researcher decried the rate
at which female secondary school students avoid science and noted that it will
not make for the nation building.
(1996) surveyed gender differences in senior secondary school performance in
chemistry in Akwa Ibom State. The result revealed a significant gender
difference in favour of males. This trend may be attributed to the fact that
females regard science subject as intellectually complex and task oriented.
This is also consistent with the findings reported by Ezeaku (2006) who worked
on sex and environment as factors in physics achievement. The researcher found
that males achieve better than females irrespective of school
to the observations above, Ezeugbor (2008) suggested that the reason for gender
differences in science achievement could be attributed to the way science is
taught in our secondary schools which tends to contribute significantly to
gender gap in science achievement and interest. To this effect, the researcher
is poised into finding a lasting solution to the issue of gender gap in
achievement in science subjects especially chemistry. This may be achieved by
involving the students in the production of the instructional materials
(models) that they are taught with.
Statement of Problem
a growing concern in Nigeria over the decline in students’ performance in
science subjects especially at the secondary level of education. One of
the science subjects in which students perform very poorly is chemistry. The
poor performance especially in chemistry has been blamed on such factors as
mathematical aspects of chemistry, absence of instructional materials and
inadequate use of the available ones, teacher-centred method, lack of students
active participation, lack of interest etc. The use of instructional materials
in teaching and learning makes learning interesting but more interesting and
permanent when three-dimensional materials like model are
the recommendation by the Federal Ministry of Education Science and Technology
(FMEST, 2000) that models be used to teach chemistry, model has been used and
found to facilitate and enhance achievement, but there is no evidence of any
comparison between the model types relative to senior secondary school
students’ achievement and interest in Organic Chemistry. The present study
explores this situation. Therefore, the problem of this study is: what is the
effect of teacher made model on the academic achievement and interest of
secondary school students in organic chemistry relative to the students’ type
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to find out the effects of
teacher made model and students’-made type on students’ achievement and
interest in organic chemistry. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. ascertain whether differences
exist in the mean achievement scores of students taught using teacher made
model and students’ made model.
2. ascertain whether differences
exist in the mean interest scores of students taught organic chemistry with
teacher made model (TMM) and Students’ Made Model (SMM)
3. find out the interaction effect
of model type and gender on students’ achievement in organic chemistry as
measured by their mean achievement scores.
4. find out any interaction effect
of model type and gender on students’ interest in organic chemistry as measured
by their organic chemistry interest inventory.
Significance of the Study
significance of this study is discussed on the basis of its theoretical and
practical perspectives. On the theoretical perspective, this study is anchored
on some psychological theories that account for how learning takes place. The
study also has a philosophical relevance.
of model is anchored on the cognitive theory of learning. In this study,
opportunities are created for students to be exposed to making and using model
for the purpose of understanding organic chemistry. The models of organic
compounds thus provide the basic structures and opportunities for intuitive
thinking. The use of models acts as a bridge between the cognitive structure
and the incoming information. This thus facilitates meaningful learning. The
cognitive field theorists hold the view that when students are exposed to
experiences that can enable them to find out by themselves the solutions to
specific problem, they tend to develop problem solving skills as well as gain
confidence in their abilities to learn. In the present study, students were
exposed to making models and such models were used to teach them some selected
topics in Organic Chemistry and their achievement scores compared with that of
the achievement of students taught with the teacher made models.
The study has a philosophical relevance. The recommendation for
use of models is based on the new secondary school chemistry curriculum. The
curriculum has been recognized to be problem-solving oriented in order to
enable it achieve the set objectives of the national educational goals which
derives from the country’s philosophy of education.
to achieve these national educational goals, the teaching methods, content,
objectives, evaluation of the new secondary school chemistry curriculum were
all designed and focused on the training of the child to be able to tackle the
present day problems.
methodological guide specifically recommended the use of models, games and
simulation, fieldwork and local studies, field observation, data collection,
projects and increased use of instructional materials (Federal Republic of
Nigeria 2004). The guide also stressed that such strategies recommended are
those that will facilitate the achievement of the set national educational
goals linked to the national philosophy. This study which focused on two types
of model is therefore, relevant for the achievement of the national goal based
on the country’s philosophy of education.
some practical usefulness as derivable from this study. The following people
will benefit from the results of this study namely: the teachers; the students,
curriculum designers and the Ministry of Education/government. The findings of
this study would likely create interest and consciousness in the teachers on
the adoption of models for the teaching and learning of Organic Chemistry and
other areas of Chemistry. Similarly, the result of this study shall be useful
to teachers and other educational agencies with respect to improvisation of
instructional materials for teaching and learning. It will equally expose the
teachers to other forms of assessing the students other than the pen-and-paper
part of the curriculum designers, in the course of curriculum designing,
planning, revision and modification, these experts shall utilize the relevant
data based on the findings of this study. For instance, pieces of information
on the skills in the teaching and learning of organic chemistry and the
concepts associated with the use of models shall be utilized in the appropriate
stages of curriculum planning, modification or revision.
Similarly, the findings of this study shall be useful to the ministry of
education/government. The findings will provide information which could
sensitize the government/ministry of education on the need for workshop,
seminars, refresher courses, conferences on the best ways to create awareness
in the teachers on the strategies for the teaching and learning of organic
chemistry. The study could yield convincing empirical evidence for the modern
techniques of teaching organic chemistry.
Scope of the Study
study focuses on finding the effects of teacher made models and students’ made
models on secondary school students’ academic achievement and interest in
organic chemistry. The content coverage includes hydrocarbons which consist of
alkanes (paraffins), alkenes (Olefins), alkynes (acetylenes) and alkanols. The
researcher’s choice of these topics is because of their importance in
understanding organic chemistry generally. They are the rudiments for proper
understanding of organic chemistry and they are amongst the topics that pose
difficulty to students (WAEC Chief Examiners Report 2003 – 2008). Finally, the
study is delimited to Senior Secondary II (SSII) students in Nsukka Education
Zone of Enugu State. SS II students were used because they are most likely to
devote attention to the study compared to the SS III students who are preparing
for their SSC examination. Moreover SS II chemistry students were used because
the topics hydrocarbon and alkanols are within the SSII chemistry curriculum.
study was guided by the following research questions.
1. What are the mean achievements
scores of students taught organic chemistry with teacher-made model and those
taught with students’-made model?
2. What is the difference between
the mean interest scores of students taught organic chemistry with teacher-made
model (TMM) and students’-made model (SMM)?
3. What is the interaction effect
of model type and gender on students’ achievement in organic chemistry as
measured by their mean achievement scores?
4. What is the interaction effect
of model type and gender on students’ interest in organic chemistry?
The following hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05
level of significance.
There is no significant difference in the mean Organic Chemistry Achievement
Test (OCAT) scores of students exposed to TMM and SMM.
The interest scores of students exposed to TMM and those exposed to SMM do not
There is no significant interaction effect of model type and gender on
students’ achievement in Organic chemistry.
There is no significant interaction effect of model type and gender on
students’ interest in organic chemistry.