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ASPECTS OF NEGATION IN KANINKON



This research is aimed at describing an aspect of syntax of Kaninkon language. And our focus is negation in the language.

Kaninkon is a language spoken in Jema’a local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The native speakers call themselves kyung (Kaninkon). Although, the Kaninkon is not a major group in Nigeria, yet the speakers are found in various part of Nigeria, especially in the Northern part of the Country.

The Kaninkon people are among the indigenous tribe of Jema’a local government and Kafancha area in particular. The areas they occupy traditionally has border with Kagoro to the North-East, Bajju to the north, Kagoma to the West, Numana and Mada to the South. They are brothers with Nindem and Kanufi who are also to the South East.

In this chapter, we shall discuss the historical background of the speakers, the geographical location, social cultural profile of Kaninkon people and the genetic classification of the speakers together with the aims and objective of this research. In this chapter also, we shall be reviewing G - B syntax and relevant literatures on negation as a syntactic process in human language. And also, we shall mention the scope and organization of the study, statement of the research problems and research questions.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Tittle Page         i

Certification          ii

Dedication          iii

Acknowledgements        iv

List of Abbreviations and Symbols      vi

Table of contents         vii

 

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction          1

1.2 Historical Background        2

1.3 Geographical Location        2

1.4 Socio Cultural Profile        3

1.4.1 Dressing         3

1.4.2 Religion         3

1.4.3 Festivals         4

1.4.4 Occupation         4

1.4.5 Marriage         4

1.5 Genetic Classification        4

1.6 Statement Of The Research Problem      6

1.7 Aims and Objectives         6

                                                                    VII

1.8 Research Question        6

1.9 Scope and Organization        7

1.10 Data Collection        7

1.10.1 Field Methodology        8

1.11 Data Analysis         8

1.12 Review of the Chosen Frame Work; G.B Syntax      8

 

CHAPTER TWO : BASIC SYNTATIC CONCEPTS

2.1 Introduction          19

2.2 Basic Syntactic Concept        19

2.2.1 Lexical Categories in Kaninkon      19

2.2.2 Phrase Structure rule        26

2.2.3 Basic Word Order         32

2.2.4 Sentence Type         34

2.3 Functional Classification of Sentence      36

2.4 A brief Phonological Aspects of Kaninkon      39

2.4.1 Tone          39

2.4.2 Syllable Structure         40

 

CHAPTER THREE : NEGATION IN KANINKON

3.1 Introduction          43

3.2 Negation          43

3.3 Types of Negation         44

3.4 Negation in Kaninkon        50

3.5 Negation Markers in Kaninkon      51

3.5.1 Sentence Negation        51

 

CHAPTER FOUR : NEGATION AND TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES IN KANINKON

4.1 Introduction         75

4.2 Transformation        75

4.2.1 Negation and Relativisation        76

4.2.2 Negation and Passivisation        85

4.2.3 Negation and Focusing        93

 

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Introduction          102

5.2 Summary         102

5.3 Conclusion          103

References

 

Historical Background

According to oral history, the Kaninkon is said to have originated from Katsina State, Nigeria. They may probably descend from the Kaita family in the present day Katsina State. This might have been made known from oral history passed down from our forefathers. Evidence of this origin can be noticed from the characteristics of both the Kaninkon and Hausa of Katsina. One of such features is the tribal mark. And the mode of burial was the same; both decorated the perimeter of the grave with broken pots.

The initial migration involved many clans but probably due to inter clan conflicts only two clans constitute the Kaninkon. They are Turan and Ngbechio. It is believed those who migrated from Katsina finally settled in a place called Gwok in the present day Gwong (Kagoma).

In the course of the conflicts already mentioned, other clans migrated further leaving behind the two clans at the present day geographical location-Gyannek (Bakin Kogi). The other break away clans may constitutes the other neighbouring people with the Kaninkon who share similarities in the language and culture.


ASPECTS OF NEGATION IN KANINKON


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